Locust Bulletin May 2016

​​ISSN 2204-9851

​​​​​​​​​​​​The Locust Bulletin is produced each month during the spring—autumn period and includes a general summary for each major locust species, details of known distributions with regional forecast an​d maps of locust distributions.

General situation in April and outlook to spring 2016

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Australian plague locust - Chortoicetes terminifera

Heavy rainfall in Southwest and Northwest Queensland, and the Far North region of South Australia during the first half of March initiated locust breeding and produced favourable habitat conditions for subsequent nymph survival. Medium and high density nymphs were identified in parts of these regions in mid-April. Fledging will increase adult population numbers in early May and further migratory movements are possible. Migration activity continued to redistribute populations in parts of New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria during April. These movements contributed to a decline in adult densities in Far West and Far Southwest New South Wales, and local increases in parts of Victoria and South Australia.

In New South Wales, adult densities declined from medium to low densities in most areas of the Far West and Far Southwest regions by mid-April. Medium density adults persisted in a small area south of Broken Hill, the Hillston–Booligal, Deniliquin and Balranald areas of the Riverina, and the Bourke–Louth area along the Darling River. Surveys identified low density adults elsewhere in these regions and in the Central West. No nymphs were detected during surveys.

Nymphs developed in the Southwest and Northwest regions of Queensland during April. Surveys in mid-April identified medium density nymphs in numerous locations in Diamantina, Boulia and Winton and Shires. A number of bands of mostly mid-instar nymphs were recorded in the Birdsville area. Adults were at low densities in these shires, in contrast to surveys in early April that recorded medium density adults in Bulloo, Quilpie and Paroo Shires, and in the Longreach area. There was no significant rainfall in western Queensland during April, but habitats remained green in the areas where nymphs were recorded.

In South Australia, medium density mid- and late instar nymphs and several small bands were identified in the Cordillo Downs area in mid-April. Reports indicate nymphs may have been more widespread in habitat areas in the Far North region. Medium density adults were recorded in the Innamincka, Dulkaninna–Murnpeowie and Parachilna areas, with low density adults elsewhere from Marree to Hawker. No locusts were detected in areas east of the Flinders Ranges. There were reports of medium density adults from locations in the Murray Valley and the Eyre Peninsula in late April.

There were several reports of low density adult locusts in North Central and Northwest Victoria during April, as locusts that migrated into the state in March have redistributed. Reports came from near Horsham, Kerang, Wycheproof and St Arnaud. Surveys in the Mallee district of Northwest Victoria in mid-April identified low density adults in the Ouyen–Swan Hill area.

The outlook for the remainder of autumn is for low density adults to persist in the Far Southwest, Riverina and Central West regions of New South Wales, parts of the Far North, Western Agricultural and Northeast regions of South Australia, and in Northwest and North Central Victoria. Protracted egg laying could continue during May, but hatching will be delayed until spring. Adult numbers will increase in Southwest and Northwest Queensland and the Far North region of South Australia, with the possibility of some late autumn breeding that could produce localised nymphs in early spring. Swarm formation is unlikely in these regions as the adults disperse and, although some movement to adjacent regions is possible in May, there is a low probability of significant late autumn migrations to agricultural districts. Nymphs are likely to develop during spring in parts of the New South Wales Far Southwest, Central West and Riverina, with the possibility of some localised bands. Localised, mostly low–medium density nymphs could develop in Northwest and North Central Victoria, and the Northeast, Murray Valley and Western Agricultural regions of South Australia. There is a low risk of widespread high density infestations in any region during spring 2016.

4 May 2016

Spur-throated locust - Austracris guttulosa

Adult population levels increased markedly in Northwest, Southwest and Central West Queensland during March and April, with the continued fledging of nymphs from summer breeding. There were still widespread nymphs at various development stages in these regions during April, indicating extended breeding throughout February and the increase in adult numbers will continue during May. In late March, Numerous–Concentration density young adults and Present–Numerous mid- and late instar nymphs were identified at many locations in the Muttaburra–Hughenden, Winton–Kynuna and Julia Creek–Richmond areas. Several large swarms of young adults were recorded in these areas. Surveys in mid-April identified widespread Scattered–Numerous density adults and Present–Numerous density nymphs in Barcoo, northern Diamantina and parts of Bulloo and Quilpie Shires. Concentration density adults were recorded at some locations. Similar densities of nymphs and adults were identified in Boulia and Winton Shires of the Northwest region. Similar population increases are likely to have occurred in parts of the Queensland Gulf and in adjacent regions of the Northern Territory.

Earlier surveys in March had identified Scattered–Numerous density adults and Present density nymphs at various life stages in many areas of Longreach, Blackall-Tambo and Barcaldine Regional Council (RC) areas, but in mid-April adults were recorded at Concentration density in the area south of Longreach. Scattered–Numerous density adults and occasional Present density nymphs were recorded in the Springsure–Rolleston area of the Central Highlands and the Morven–Roma area of South Central Queensland during March. Adult numbers are likely to have increased in these regions during April. Few adults and no nymphs were identified in New South Wales or South Australia, except the Cordillo Downs area in the Far North region of South Australia, where Isolated–Scattered density adults were recorded. Any egg laying in northern New South Wales or South Australia is likely to have produced only occasional low density nymphs.

Favourable habitat conditions for nymph survival were maintained by heavy rains during the first half of March in the Southwest and Northwest regions of Queensland. Egg development to hatching in this species takes 3–4 weeks and nymph development a further 8–10 weeks. Females can lay multiple times during summer. Nymphs of this species usually do not aggregate to form bands, but can reach densities of 30 m2 in favourable habitats. Nymph numbers are likely to have peaked during March, but residual late instars will be present during May. Fledging will continue during May and into June.

The outlook is for an overall increase in the young adult population during autumn to an equivalent or higher level than in 2015, and significantly higher than in other recent years. There is a moderate risk of further swarm formation during late autumn 2016, particularly in the Central West, Northwest and Central Highlands regions of Queensland. Migrations of young adults can occur during autumn and swarms often over-winter in forest areas and riparian tree lines during winter. There is a moderate risk of some swarms migrating to cropping areas in Queensland during spring 2016.

Migratory locust - Locusta migratoria

Surveys in Queensland during March identified only low density adults and occasional nymphs in parts of the Central Highlands and northern South Central regions of Queensland. Isolated–Scattered density adults were recorded in Springsure–Buckland, Rolleston–Arcadia and Mitchell–Injune areas. Present density mid-instar nymphs were detected in the Arcadia Valley. Rainfall in these areas during March will have maintained suitable habitats for sporadic localised breeding. This species is capable of continuous breeding during summer and autumn, resulting in populations comprising multiple life stages.

There is a low probability of gregarious populations developing in the Central Highlands or eastern Central West Queensland during autumn or winter. However, gregarisation can occur at local scales and is often associated with cropping. The absence of any identified high densities during autumn indicates a low probability of a widespread infestation developing during winter or spring 2016.

It is important that any locust activity be reported as soon as possible to your local biosecurity authority, primary industries department or to the commission. A toll–free call to the APLC can be made on 1800 635 962. An answering machine is attached for after–hours calls. Reports can also be e–mailed to APLC or made through the internet at Australian Plague Locust Commission.

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Australian plague locust distribution 1 April to 30 April 2016

Map of Australian plague locust distribution - April 2016

 

Spur-throated locust distribution February-April 2016

'Map of spur-throated locust distribution - February-April 2016

 

Situation in April and forecast to spring 2016

New South Wales

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Central West and Northwest Plains
Central West, Northwest and Central Tablelands Local Land Services

Locusts and conditions

  • The locust population remained at generally low densities in surveyed areas of these regions and no nymphs were detected during April.
  • Surveys in Central West Local Land Services (LLS) area in early April identified Isolated–Scattered density adults in the Nyngan–Tottenham–Carinda area. In mid-April, Scattered–Numerous density adults were recorded in the Condobolin–Euabalong–Tullibigeal area, and only Isolated density adults in the Narromine–Parkes area. No surveys were conducted in the Northwest LLS area and no locust activity was reported.
  • There was light rainfall (<20 mm) in parts of the Moree and Northern tablelands districts during 8–15 April. There was patchy light–moderate rainfall (<20-40 mm) in parts of the Central West and Central Tablelands LLS areas, and in the Moree and Narrabri districts of Northwest LLS area during 15–22 April. There was further light–moderate rainfall in the Central West LLS, with some locally heavy (>40 mm) falls rainfall in the area from Nyngan to Parkes, during the last week of the month, which should produce green vegetation growth.

Forecast

  • The population will remain at generally low densities in most areas during May and adult numbers will continue to decline in June.
  • There is likely to have been some low–medium density egg laying in late March and April, with some sporadic laying possible during May. The majority of any eggs laid after mid-March will enter diapause and not hatch until September. The known autumn distribution indicates that some nymphs, most likely at low–medium densities, are likely to develop in the Condobolin area and other localised areas of the Central West LLS area from late September.
  • There is a low probability of significant immigration from other regions during May.

Risks

  • There is a low risk of widespread infestations developing during spring.

Riverina
Riverina and Murray Local Land Services

Locusts and conditions

  • Locust redistributions continued during April, but there was no detected significant immigration from other regions. Adult population densities were generally, with medium densities in some areas, and no nymphs were detected in surveyed areas.
  • Surveys in mid-April identified Scattered–Numerous density adults in the Hillston and Deniliquin districts, and Isolated–Scattered densities in the Hay, Griffith, Jerilderie, Narrandera and West Wyalong districts.
  • There was light rainfall (<20 mm) in southern Murray and Riverina LLS areas at the end of April.

Forecast

  • Although autumn egg laying is often not limited to areas of recent rainfall, the rainfall in late April could result in continued low-medium density egg laying. Sporadic egg laying is likely to have occurred throughout March and April, although none has been reported or observed. Localised, higher density laying could have occurred in areas adjacent to irrigated pasture or crops.
  • Adults are likely to persist at low-medium densities during May, and numbers should decline in June.
  • The majority of any eggs laid during March or April will enter diapause and most will hatch in early October. Most eggs laid during May will not enter diapause, but develop slowly during winter to hatch at a similar time, although some earlier hatching could occur depending on soil temperatures in early spring. There is a moderate probability of localised medium density nymphs developing in parts of the Riverina in October, with the possibility small Bands in some locations.
  • There is a low probability of significant immigration from other regions during May.

Risks

  • There is a low risk of a widespread regional infestation developing during spring.

Far West and Far Southwest
Western Local Land Services

Locusts and conditions

  • Redistribution and migrations continued during late March and April, contributing to a decline in densities in most areas compared to numbers recorded in March. No nymphs were detected during surveys.
  • Surveys of the Far West in early April identified Scattered–Numerous density adults in the Bourke–Louth area, but only occasional adults in the Tibooburra-Broken Hill, Wilcannia and White Cliffs districts. Numerous density adults were identified in one area south of Broken Hill, following a landholder report from Netley in early April, but only occasional adults were recorded in surrounding areas.
  • Surveys of the Far Southwest in late April identified Isolated–Scattered density adults in the Menindee–Pooncarie–Ivanhoe area, and only occasional adults in the Wentworth–Balranald–Clare area.
  • The Fowlers Gap light trap recorded low numbers of locusts during 2–3 and on 28 April, but none were recorded at White Cliffs.
  • There was patchy light-moderate rainfall (<20-40 mm) in the Broken Hill, Wilcannia, Menindee, Ivanhoe and Cobar districts during the last week of April, with locally heavy falls around Cobar.

Forecast

  • Adult numbers will continue to decline during May and June. There is a moderate probability of some low density immigration from Southwest Queensland during May, but this is unlikely to result in a large population increase.
  • There may have been some sporadic medium density egg laying in the Broken Hill–Menindee area after rainfall in mid-March, but conditions became dry during April, except in the area around Netley where adults aggregated and probably laid eggs in mid-April. The rainfall at the end of April could initiate further low density egg laying, particularly in the Wilcannia, White Cliffs, Ivanhoe or Cobar districts.
  • The majority of any eggs laid from late March in the Far West region, and from mid-March in the Far Southwest, will enter diapause and not hatch until early spring.
  • There is a moderate probability of localised nymphs developing in spring in several areas of the Far Southwest. Nymphs are likely to develop at low–medium densities, but small Bands are possible in some areas. Hatchings will commence in mid-September in the Far West and late September in the Far Southwest region.

Risks

  • There is a low risk of a widespread regional infestations developing during spring.

All locust activity should be reported to your Local Land Services or the Department of Primary Industries, NSW. A toll-free call to the APLC can be made on 1800 635 962. An answering machine is attached for after-hours calls. Reports can also be e–mailed to APLC or sent through the web page at Australian Plague Locust Commission.

Queensland

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Southwest
Barcoo, Bulloo, Quilpie and Diamantina Shire

Locusts and conditions

  • A medium–high density nymph population developed in Diamantina and western Barcoo Shires after heavy rainfall during the first half of March initiated egg laying. Favourable habitat conditions resulted in widespread nymph survival during April.
  • Surveys in mid-April identified nymphs at Numerous–Sub-band densities in numerous locations in Diamantina western Barcoo Shires. Several Bands were recorded in the Birdsville area. The majority of nymphs were at mid-instar stages, indicating egg laying commenced with the heavy rains during 5–12 March. Adults were recorded at Isolated–Scattered densities.
  • Surveys at the end of March in Bulloo and Quilpie Shires identified Scattered-Numerous density adults in many locations, but no nymphs were detected.
  • The Nooyeah Downs light trap recorded low numbers of locusts each night during the first week of April.
  • There was no significant rainfall reported in this region during April, but vegetation remained green in locust habitats in Barcoo and Diamantina Shires.

Forecast

  • Fledging of nymphs will have commenced in late April and will continue in May. Adult densities will increase, but widespread swarm formation is unlikely. Adults are likely to redistribute within the region, resulting in an overall Numerous density population level. Some migration to adjacent regions is likely.
  • Any egg laying during May will be restricted to residual favourable habitats. Few eggs laid in May enter diapause, but the likelihood of a significant winter cohort of nymphs is low. Some localised early spring hatchings are likely in Diamantina Shire from August due to low soil temperatures during winter, and some Bands could develop in September depending on vegetation conditions.
  • There is a moderate probability of migrations and redistribution within the region during May.

Risks

  • There is a low risk of a widespread regional infestation during spring.

Central West & Northwest
Longreach, Barcaldine and Blackall-Tambo Regional Council. Boulia, Cloncurry, Flinders, Mckinlay, Mt Isa, Richmond and Winton Shire

Locusts and conditions

  • The adult population level remained low in surveyed areas during April, but nymphs developed in Boulia and Winton Shires.
  • Surveys in mid-April identified Present and Numerous density late instar nymphs in southern Boulia and Winton Shires, along with Isolated density adults. Isolated–Scattered density adults were identified in the Longreach–Stonehenge area.
  • Surveys in northern Winton, McKinlay, Richmond and Flinders Shires at the end of March identified only occasional Isolated density adults.
  • The Longreach light trap recorded no locusts during April.
  • There was light rainfall (<20 mm) in the Blackall-Tambo Regional Council (RC) area during 8–15 April. Pasture vegetation remained green in habitat areas of Winton and Boulia Shires during April.

Forecast

  • Population level is expected to remain generally low in the Central West region during May, as vegetation became dry during April. Some localised low density breeding was possible in the Tambo area during April, following rainfall at the end of March and again in mid-April, but is unlikely to produce more than low density nymphs in spring.
  • Nymphs in Winton and Boulia Shires will fledge in early May and contribute to an increase in adult numbers to an overall Numerous density level and swarm formation is unlikely. Adults could aggregate in residual green habitats and sporadic egg laying in May could produce low density nymphs in June and July, but there is a low probability of a large winter or early spring nymph generation.

Risks

  • There is a low risk of a widespread regional infestations during spring.

Central Highlands
Central Highlands and Isaac Regional Council

Locusts and conditions

  • Locust densities are expected to have remained generally low during April. No surveys were conducted and there were reports of locust activity.
  • Previous surveys identified Isolated–Scattered density adults in Central Highlands Regional Council (RC) area.
  • There was light rainfall (<20 mm) in the Emerald area during 8–15 April. Pasture vegetation has become dry in much of the region.

Forecast

  • Nymphs in the Springsure area in late March fledged in early April, but are only likely to have maintained the low regional population level.
  • Most of any eggs laid during April will have entered diapause and not hatch until early September.
  • There is a low probability of immigration from other regions during May.

Risks

  • There is a low risk of a widespread infestation developing during spring.

South Central & Darling Downs
Balonne, Murweh and Paroo Shire. Maranoa, Western Downs and Goondiwindi Regional Council

Locusts and conditions

  • Locust population levels are expected to have remained generally low during April. No surveys were conducted and there were no reports of locust activity.
  • Previous surveys in northern Murweh Shire and Maranoa Regional Council (RC) area identified Isolated–Scattered density adults and occasional Present density nymphs.
  • There was patchy light rainfall (<20 mm) in parts of Balonne and Murweh Shires during 8–15 April. Pasture vegetation is dry in most of the region.

Forecast

  • Given the low population level detected in previous months and the generally dry habitat conditions, there is unlikely to have been any significant population increase or egg laying during April.
  • Any eggs laid in April will enter diapause and hatch in September, while eggs laid in May will also hatch at a similar time. No significant nymph population is expected to develop during spring.
  • There is a low probability of significant immigration from other regions during May.

Risks

  • There is a low risk of a widespread regional infestation developing during spring.

Locust activity should be reported to Biosecurity Queensland (Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries) on 132 523. A toll free call to the APLC can be made on 1800 635 962. An answering machine is attached for after-hours calls. Reports can also be e–mailed to APLC or sent through the web page at Australian Plague Locust Commission.

South Australia

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Far North, Northeast, Northwest & Western Agricultural Region

Locusts and conditions

  • Heavy rainfall in the Far North and Northwest regions during the first half of March initiated egg laying which produced localised high density nymphs in parts of the Far North region April.
  • Surveys of the Cordillo Downs area in mid-April identified Numerous–Band density nymphs in several locations. Most nymphs were at mid–late instar stages, indicating egg laying coincident with the rainfall during 5–12 March. Reports indicate there were also nymphs in the Cadelga and Clifton Hills areas.
  • Scattered–Numerous adults were identified in the Innamincka, Murnpeowie–Dulkaninna and Parachilna areas at the end of March, and Isolated–Scattered density adults from Marree to Hawker. No locusts were detected on the eastern side of the Flinders Ranges or in the Yunta–Orroroo area.
  • Numerous density locusts were reported at Karkoo on the lower Eyre Peninsula and near Ceduna in mid-April. These may have have migrated from the north during March and redistributed to aggregate in favourable habitats.
  • Adult locusts were reported at Dulkaninna in late April, but none were recorded in the light trap.
  • No significant rainfall was recorded in these regions during April, but vegetation remained green in the Far North and Northwest regions.

Forecast

  • Fledging of nymphs in the Far North region commenced in late April and will continue during the first half of May. Sporadic egg laying is possible in residual favourable habitats and along drainage lines during May, which could produce nymphs in late August and September. A proportion of eggs laid in March could have entered diapause, which would also hatch in late August.
  • Adult numbers will continue to increase during the first half of May, but any swarm formation is likely to be restricted to areas where high density nymphs have fledged. Young adults are likely to disperse within the region and low density migrations are possible in May. Any similar population increase in the Northwest region is likely to be at lower densities.
  • Sporadic egg laying may have occurred in parts of the Northeast region and the Eyre Peninsula in April and could continue in some locations during May. Localised nymphs could develop in some areas during September and October.
  • There is a moderate probability of migrations to other regions in South Australia during May, but these are unlikely to result in significant population increases.

Risks

  • There is a low risk of widespread regional infestations developing in spring.

Murray Valley, Mt Lofty Ranges & Southeast Region

Locusts and conditions

  • Locust densities remained generally low during April, but reports indicate low density immigration and redistributions continued.
  • There was a report of locusts from the Karoonda area in the Murray Mallee district in late April.
  • There was no significant rainfall in these regions during April.

Forecast

  • There is a moderate probability of small immigrations and redistributions during May.
  • Most eggs laid during autumn will enter diapause to hatch in late September and October.

Risks

  • There is a low risk of a widespread infestation developing during spring.

Locust activity should be reported to Biosecurity SA (Primary Industries and Region South Australia) on the Locust Reporting Hotline on 1300 666 101. A toll-free call to the APLC can be made on 1800 635 962. An answering machine is attached for after-hours calls. Reports can also be e–mailed to APLC or sent through the web page at Australian Plag​ue Locust Commission.

Victoria

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North West & North Central Victoria

Locusts and conditions

  • The locust population remained at generally low densities, but numbers increased in parts of the North Central and Northwest regions, following several small immigrations from adjacent areas of NSW during March. Redistributions and adult activity continued during April.
  • Adult locusts were reported from the Mitiamo, Kerang, Wycheproof, Quambatook and St Arnaud areas in mid-April. Numerous density adults were identified at several locations, and Numerous density late-instar nymphs were identified by Victorian biosecurity staff at one location north of St Arnaud on 18 April. This indicates some local egg laying in early March.
  • APLC surveys in the Northern Mallee district in mid-April identified Isolated–Scattered density adults in the Ouyen–Swan Hill area.
  • There was light–moderate rainfall (<20-40 mm) in parts North Central Victoria during late April and early May.

Forecast

  • The localised nymphs near St Arnaud will have fledged in late April. These could represent more widespread low density nymphs in the northern Wimmera, but there is unlikely to be any significant population increase during May.
  • Adults are likely to persist in some areas during May and could congregate on irrigated pastures. Some further localised low density egg laying is likely during May and possibly June. Eggs laid before May will enter diapause and not hatch until October. Any eggs laid during May will develop slowly during winter and will also hatch in October, but some early hatchings are possible if temperatures are above average. Adult numbers should decline during May and June.
  • Nymphs, mostly at low densities, are likely to develop in localised areas in October and November.
  • There is a moderate probability of further low density immigrations from South Australia or NSW during May, but any movements are unlikely to result in a significant population increase.

Risks

  • There is a low risk of a widespread infestation developing during spring.

Locust activity should be reported to Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources on 1300 135559. A toll-free call to the APLC can be made on 1800 635 962. An answering machine is attached for after-hours calls. Reports can also be e–mailed to APLC or sent through the web page at Australian Plague Locust Commission.

Glossary of locust terms and density categories used in the Locust Bulletin

Locust biology and behaviour

TermDefinition
adultA fully winged, mature locust capable of breeding and migrating
bandDense aggregation of nymphs, usually moving forward together
diapausePeriod of dormancy in anticipation of unfavourable environmental conditions
egg bedAn area of soil containing many egg pods (up to 1000 per square metre)
fledgeFinal nymphal moult to a soft-bodied adult incapable of long-distance flight
instarDiscrete stages of nymphal development each separated by a moult
layingFemale locusts each depositing clutches of 20-60 eggs into the ground in froth-lined egg pods
nymphJuvenile wingless locust. Often referred to as the hopper stage
swarmDense aggregation of adults, milling at the same spot or flying closely together

Locust density categories

Where higher densities occur, a large proportion of the regional population is concentrated in very small areas with lower densities elsewhere, so the higher densities cannot be extrapolated over the area of an entire region. A range of density classes is usually found within a surveyed region.

Nymph DensitiesNumber per m2
Present1 – 5
Numerous6 – 30
Sub–band31 – 80
Band> 80

Adult DensitiesNumber per m2Number per hectare
Isolated– 0.02< 200
Scattered0.03 – 0.1> 200 – 1000
Numerous0.2 – 0.5> 1000 – 5000
Concentration0.6 – 3.0> 5000 – 30,000
Low Density Swarm4.0 – 10> 30,000 – 100,000
Medium Density Swarm11 – 50> 100,000 – 500,000
High Density Swarm> 50> 500,000

General density classesNymph densitiesAdult densities
very low, occasionalNil–PresentNil–Isolated
lowPresentIsolated–Scattered
mediumNumerous—Sub–bandScattered–Numerous
highBandsConcentration–Swarms

Reporting locust infestations

It is important that all locust activity is reported as soon as possible to your nearest state agriculture agency office or to the Australian Plague Locust Commission.

StateAuthority for reporting locusts
New South WalesLocal Land Services (LLS) or Department of Primary Industries
QueenslandBiosecurity Queensland, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries
South AustraliaBiosecurity SA, Primary Industries & Regions South Australia (PIRSA)
VictoriaBiosecurity Agriculture, Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources

Reports to the Australian Plague Locust Commission can be made by:

Free call (Canberra): 1800 635 962 (24 hours)
Fax (Canberra): (02) 6272 5074
​ E–mail: APLC
Internet: Australian Plague Locust Commission

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