Volume 5 - Product identification

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Grain and Plant Products:

Barley, Canola, Chickpea, Field Peas, Faba Beans, Hay and Straw, Lentils, Lupins, Oats, Sorghum, Soybeans,Timber, Rice, Cotton and Vetch.

Barley
Scientific name(s) - Family: Poaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Hordeum vulgare (or H. vulgare) and other Hordeum spp.
Alternative common name(s): H. vulgare - Common Barley seed. H. jubatum - Squirreltail grass seed, Foxtail grass seed, Wild barley seed. Cereal seed.
Description: Barley and wheat seeds look quite similar and can be difficult to differentiate visually. Barley seed has a golden coloured husk. It is boat-shaped with a groove down the centre of one side. The seed is slightly flattened longitudinally on the back making it flatter than a wheat seed. Barley seed is bigger than wheat seed but when the husk is removed ie. pearled barley, it more closely resembles wheat seed.
Different forms: Whole seeds; pearled barley ie. dehulled and polished; malted barley ie. sprouted and roasted; malt extract; barley flour (by-product of pearling barley).
Uses: Human consumption (eg. pearl barley, malted barley used in beer production and barley flour); seeds for sowing; animal feed.
Quarantine risks: Lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica), rice and maize weevil (Sitophilus spp.), rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), saw toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) flat grain beetle (Cryptolestes spp.), and carpet beetle (Anthrenus spp.) Smut For more information on grain diseases please access www.padil.com.au and select View Diseases/ Hosts/ Grains
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Hordeum jubatum ie. Wild barley is considered a weed species.

Canola
Scientific name(s) - Family: Brassicaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Brassica napus
Alternative common name(s): Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed
Description: Canola, is a yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family).
Different forms:
Uses: Canola Oil - Human consumption High protein stock feed Biodiesel - fuel from vegetable oils
Quarantine risks: Saw toothed grain beetle, rust red flour beetle, angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella) and psocids (Psocoptera) Beet Western Yellow Virus (BWYV) For more information on grain diseases please access www.padil.com.au and select View Diseases/ Hosts/ Grains
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Canola is a cultivar of the rapeseed plant from which rapeseed oil is obtained.Australia has a large Canola industry and Export market

Chickpea

Scientific name(s) - Family: Leguminosae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Cicer arietinum and other Cicer spp.
Alternative common name(s): Garbanzo beans; legumes; pulses; besan flour (ground chickpeas); chana dahl (split chickpeas); kabuli channa (white chickpeas); kala channa (black chickpeas).
Description: Two main types of chickpeas are grown: Desi – small and angular with thick seed coats and darker in colour (yellow to brown/black); Kabuli – large rounded seed that is white to cream coloured.
Different forms: Whole seeds, split (ie. chana dahl), ground (ie. besan).
Uses: Human consumption; seeds for sowing; animal feed.
Quarantine risks: Rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) and psocids (Psocoptera). Ascochyta blight
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Contamination – soil/seed/other plant material. General comments: Chickpea is the world’s third most important pulse crop after dried beans and peas. Australia has a significant chickpea industry centred around Goondiwindi, NSW and Southern Queensland. Desi chickpeas are mainly split to form dhal or ground for flour.

Field Peas

Scientific name(s) - Family: Leguminosae (Subfamily: Faboideae)
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Pisum sativum
Alternative common name(s): Legumes; pulses; Garden peas; Green peas; Common peas; Boiler peas; mangetout; snow peas; sugar snap peas; split peas; yellow split peas; green split peas; channa; chana dhal; gram lentils.
Description: Peas are spherical seeds that grow in a pod. Green peas are the immature seeds. Dried peas are the mature seeds. Removing the thin shell coat from the whole mature seeds produces split peas.
Different forms: Whole seeds (fresh or dried); split peas (yellow and green); flour.
Uses: Human consumption; seeds for sowing (whole seed only); animal feed.
Quarantine risks: Pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum), cowpea weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus) and rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) For more information on grain diseases please access www.padil.com.au and select View Diseases/ Hosts/ Grains
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Split peas may look similar to lentils. Lentils have an even curve on each side of the side whilst split peas have a curve on one side and are flat on the other side The ornamental flower Sweet Pea is a member of the subfamily Faboidae also but belongs to a different genus, Lathyrus spp.

Faba Bean

Scientific name(s) - Family: Leguminosae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Vicia faba
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Most beans are roughly kidney shaped and have an elongated eye where the seed attaches to the inside of the pod.
Different forms: Whole seeds, ground (ie. flour).
Uses: Human consumption; seeds for sowing; animal feed; decorative purposes eg. clocks, wall hangings.
Quarantine risks: Bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) and Pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Larvae of field insects - including Heliocoverpa spp. which bore into the seeds in the pods For more information on grain diseases please access www.padil.com.au and select View Diseases/ Hosts/ Grains
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Beans as food are used in 3 different ways: entire pod eaten; mature fresh beans removed from pod; dried mature beans.

Hay and Straw

Scientific name(s) - Family:
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:
Alternative common name(s): Hay means hay from any pasture plant, wheat, oat, barley, rye, or triticale. Straw means straw from a cereal plant including wheat, oat, barley, rye and triticale but not including straw from rice.
Description: Hay for export may contain ryegrass. (Lolium spp.)
Different forms: Triticale is a cereal crop developed by human intervention from crosses between wheat and rye
Uses: Stockfeed
Quarantine risks: Psocids (Psocoptera), foreign grain beetle (Ahasverus advena), mould beetles (Corticaria sp. Corynetoxins (CT) means the toxins produced by bacteria Rathayibacter toxicus. Annual Ryegrass Toxicity (ARGT) means the disease in livestock caused by consuming grasses and ryegrasses containing Corynetoxins produced by R. toxicus.
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS The contamination of hay and straw by CT is a major concern for Australian hay and straw exports. CT is a powerful tunicamycin-like poison that infects some annual grasses. CT is produced when the nematode, Anguina spp., carries the bacterial organism, Rathyibacter toxicus (“R. toxicus”), into developing seed heads of some pastoral and cereal plants ELISA means enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay for testing corynetoxin or R.toxicus. These tests have been developed by Western Australia Department of Agriculture and the CSIRO

Lentils

Scientific name(s) - Family: Leguminosae (Subfamily: Faboideae)
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Lens culinaris
Alternative common name(s): Legumes; Pulses Red lentils; split masoor dal; split masoor dhal Brown lentils; green lentils; whole masoor dal; whole masoor dahl. Yellow lentils; toor dal; toor dahl.
Description: The lentil is a lens shaped seed. Lentils come in a variety of colours: red, brown, green, yellow.
Different forms: Whole seeds, flour/meal.
Uses: Human consumption; seeds for sowing; animal feed.
Quarantine risks: Rice and maize weevils (Sitophilus spp.), rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and cowpea weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus) Heliocoverpa sp. and Etiella larvae bore into the seeds in the pods. Ascochyta blight For more information on grain diseases please access www.padil.com.au and select View Diseases/ Hosts/ Grains
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Lentils are used to make dahl a spiced Indian porridge-like dish. Lentils are closely related to peas, both belonging to the Faboideae subfamily.

Lupins

Scientific name(s) - Family: Fabaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Lupinus spp.
Alternative common name(s): Narrow Leaf Lupins - Stock feed Albus Lupins - Human consumption Yellow Lupins - Stock feed
Description: Lupins are also cultivated as forage and grain legumes. Phomopsis fungus can cause liver disease in animals.
Different forms:
Uses: Human Consumption Stock Feed Like most members of the Legumes lupins fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonia and hence fertilises the soil for other plants
Quarantine risks: Cowpea weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus) and rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) Cowpea weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus) and rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) Blight, Wilts
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. The majority of Australian production is L. angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) and more than 80% is grown in Western Australia. L. albus (European white lupin) production in Australia peaked in 1996 prior to the outbreak of the disease anthracnose. Since 1996 most L. albus has been produced in New South Wales where anthracnose has limited distribution.

Oats

Scientific name(s) - Family: Graminae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Avena sativa and other Avena spp.
Alternative common name(s): Avena fatua Wild oats. Cereal seed. Rolled oats; porridge.
Description: Oats seed is a long skinny seed compared to wheat and barley seeds. There is a longitudinal groove down one side of the seed. Avena sativa (commonly cultivated species) is a white/cream seed. Avena fatua (Wild oats) is a dark brown coloured hairy seed.
Different forms: Whole seeds; rolled oats
Uses: Human consumption (eg. rolled oats); Animal feed; seeds for sowing.
Quarantine risks: Lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica), rice and maize weevil (Sitophilus spp.), rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), saw toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) Loose Smut
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Numerous other diseases of oats may also infect other cereal crops such as wheat and barley.

Sorghum

Scientific name(s) - Family: Poaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Sorghum bicolor
Alternative common name(s): Millet (NB. Millet is a common name that also includes other species that not Sorghum spp.); Broomcorn.
Description: Sorghum seeds are small hard and spherical, about 3mm in diameter with a small pointed end. Sorghum seed is commonly red/brown in colour but may also be white.
Different forms: Whole seeds, flour.
Uses: Human consumption; animal feed; seeds for sowing.
Quarantine risks: Lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica), rice and maize weevil (Sitophilus spp.), angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella)Sorghum midge (Contarinia sorghicola) a major pest of sorghum crops – not present in WA Ergot, Covered smut of sorghum
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Sorghum is a staple foodstuff for the human populations of many parts of Asia and Africa, including Ethiopia, Somalia and other countries fringing the Sahara desert where other cereal crops do not grow well. 98% of sorghum usage in developed countries is as animal feed. S. vulgare var. technicum is a sorghum species

Soybeans

Scientific name(s) - Family: Fabaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Glycine max
Alternative common name(s): Soya Bean
Description: Seed shape varies from spherical to flat and elongated. A wide range of seed sizes exists.
Different forms:
Uses: Human and animal consumption
Quarantine risks: Seed weevils (Bruchudius spp.) and rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) Stored product pests Contamination – soil/seed/other plant material. Soybean rust disease
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Glycine max, a legume native to China. A major source of vegetable protein and oil for human and animal consumption Industrial uses for soybeans include medicines, soaps and disinfectants, pesticides, fertilizers, candles, varnish, fire extinguisher fluid, and paint.

Timber

Scientific name(s) - Family:
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species:
Alternative common name(s):
Description:
Different forms:
Uses:
Quarantine risks: Mould beetles (Latridiidae), sap beetles (Nitidulidae) and rove beetles (Staphylinidae)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS

Rice

Scientific name(s) - Family: Gramineae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Oryza sativa
Alternative common name(s):
Description: A cereal grass (Oryza sativa) that prefers warm climates.
Different forms:
Uses: Rice grain is used as a staple food throughout the world.
Quarantine risks: Rice weevils (Sitophilus spp.), cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS Rice is viable as long as the embryo (or germ) is still intact. The bran layer and outer husk protect the embryo. Milling the rice grain may partially or fully remove the bran layer. Even after milling, the germ of black (non-glutinous), red and brown rice is often still intact (see image at bottom right) thus maintaining grain viability. Polished white rice and black glutinous rice are not viable as the embryo is removed during milling. It is difficult however to visually differentiate black glutinous & black (non-glutinous) rice. A magnifying handlens or magnifying lamp and a little expertise is required to identify the rice germ on a rice grain. Rice contains high levels of starch.

Cotton

Scientific name(s) - Family:
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Gossypium
Alternative common name(s):
Description:
Different forms:
Uses:
Quarantine risks: Pest: Cotton Aphid Disease: Pests Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, and native budworm Helicoverpa punctigera are caterpillars that damage cotton crops. Some other Lepidoptera larvae also feed on cotton - see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Cotton plants. Green mirid (Creontiades dilutus), a sucking insect Spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, T. ludeni and T. lambi Thrips, Thrips tabaci and Frankliniella schultzei Diseases Alterna
General comments:

Vetch

Scientific name(s) - Family: Fabaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Vicia sativa
Alternative common name(s): Tare
Description: Seeds are globose or somewhat compressed, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, smooth, dull or velvety, greenish gray to maroon or black, rarely yellowish white
Different forms:
Uses: Green fodder, hay and as a cover and green-manure crop
Quarantine risks: Pea weevils (Bruchus spp.), cowpea weevil (Callosbruchus maculatus) and rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella)Stored product pests Aphids Broad bean stain virus (BBSV) Contamination – soil/seed/other plant material.
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Vetch was substituted as lentils in 1997 leading to an enquiry in the Export of split lentils and split vetch - open the website below on Vetch substitution http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s22429.htm

Horticultural Products

Apple

Scientific name(s) - Family: Rosaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Malus spp.
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Apples - Apples (genus Malus) belong to the family Rosaceae Pome fruit
Different forms: Varieties such as: Golden Delicious, Pink Lady and Granny Smith
Uses: Human Consumption
Quarantine risks: Pest: Light Brown Apple Moth (Epiphyaspostvitana)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Tasmania has a large Apple industry.

Apricot

Scientific name(s) - Family: Rosaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Prunus armeniaca
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Stone fruit Fruits are generally yellow to orange in skin color and flesh. Apricot size ranges from small (about 25–30 g per fruit) to large (100–130 g).
Different forms:
Uses: Human Consumption
Quarantine risks: Pest: Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella), Mealybugs (Pseudococcus sp), Light brown apple moth (Epiphyaspostvitana)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Apricots are also cultivated in Australia, particularly the Riverland region of South Australia. Other growing states are: Tasmania, Western Victoria and southwest New South Wales.

Avocado

Scientific name(s) - Family: Lauraceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Persea americana
Alternative common name(s): Alligator pear
Description: Oval or pear-shaped fruit with leathery skin, yellowish-green flesh, and a large seed
Different forms:
Uses: Human Consumption
Quarantine risks: Lantania Scale (Hemiberlisia lantaniae)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Avocado plantings are found in the States of Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia and Tasmania Mostly available between March and November.

Banana

Scientific name(s) - Family: Musaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Musa acuminata
Alternative common name(s): Plaintain
Description: Edible fruit, which occurs in hanging clusters, is usually yellow when ripe, and is about 15–20 cm long. The banana of commerce is (Musa sapientum)
Different forms:
Uses: Human consumption
Quarantine risks: Thrips - Western Flower Thrips
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Fruit of the genus Musa (family Musaceae), a large herbaceous plant. An important food crop of the world.

Broccoli

Scientific name(s) - Family: Cruciferae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Brassica oleracea
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Leafy crop. Broccoli is a cool-weather crop. A vegetable (Brassica oleracea var. italica) in the mustard family, closely related to the cauliflower and having dense clusters of numerous green flower buds.
Different forms:
Uses: Human Consumption
Quarantine risks: Pest: Diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella) cabbage moth (Pieris rapae) Thrips (Thirps spp), rutherglen bug (Nysius vinitor) and other caterpillars
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. The large mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli closely resembles cauliflower, but is green rather than white.

Capsicum

Scientific name(s) - Family: Solanaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Capsicum annuum
Alternative common name(s): Bell pepper
Description: Bell-shaped red, yellow, or green fruit
Different forms:
Uses: Human consumption
Quarantine risks: Pepper fruit fly(Atherigona sp) Armyworm or Budworm caterpillars (Helicoverpa spp)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Capsicum are used as spices, vegetables and medicines

Carrot

Scientific name(s) - Family: Apiaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Daucus carota
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Member of the parsley family has fern-like green foliage and long, slender, edible orange roots
Different forms:
Uses: Human consumption
Quarantine risks: Pest: Springtails (Soil contamination)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Perennial plant widely cultivated as an annual in many varieties for its long conical deep-orange edible roots; temperate and tropical regions

Celery

Scientific name(s) - Family: Umbelliferae (Apiaceae)
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Apium graveolens
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Leafy crop. Celery, biennial plant (Apium graveolens) of the family Umbelliferae (parsley family).
Different forms:
Uses: Human Consumption
Quarantine risks: Pest: Springtails (Entomobrya sp & Hypogastrura sp)), Onion thrips (Thirps tabaci), planthoppers (Cicadellidae), aphids (Aphididae), brown lacewings (Hemerobiidae), rutherglen bug (Nysius vinitor) and mould beetles (Corticaria spp.)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS.

Cherry

Scientific name(s) - Family: Rosaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Prunus avium
Alternative common name(s):
Description: The small, round red/ black fruits are botanically designated drupes, or stone fruits.
Different forms:
Uses: Human Consumption
Quarantine risks: Pests: mites, thrips, fruit fly
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Trees of the genus Prunus and grown for their edible fruits. (like peach, apricot, and plum). About 600 varieties are cultivated, practically all derived from two species—P. avium (sweet cherries) and P. cerasus (sour cherries)

Citrus

Scientific name(s) - Family: Rutaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Citrus spp.
Alternative common name(s): Oranges, mandarins, cumquats, lemons, limes, tangelos, grapefruits, pomelo.
Description: Round to oval fruits, varying in size from about 20mm diameter up to about 200mm when fresh, ranging in colour from orange, yellow and green Colour of dried fruit is often duller and size is smaller than that of fresh fruit. Dried citrus peel may appear quite a dark brownish colour.
Different forms:
Uses: Human consumption (eg. tea or flavouring ingredient), Home decoration (eg. potpourri, sliced dried citrus, pomander), Medicinal (eg. mandarin peel).
Quarantine risks: Pest:Citrophilus mealybug (Pseudococcus calceolariae), longtaol mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus), California red scale Aonidiella aurantii), light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), codling moth (Cydia pomonella), fullers rose weevil egg masses (Naupactus cervinus)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Large family of fruit includes among its members the citron, grapefruit, cumquat, lavender gem, lemon, lime, mandarin orange, oro blanco, pomelo, shaddock, tangelo, tangerine and ugli fruit

Cut Flowers

Scientific name(s) - Family: Assorted families - many different varieties
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Assorted genus/species
Alternative common name(s): Assorted
Description: Depends on the genus/species
Different forms: Varied
Uses: Display/gifts
Quarantine risks: Cutworms and armyworms (Noctuidae), rutherglen bug (Nysius vinitor), aphids (Aphididae), western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), thrips (Thrips spp.), springtails (Collembola), argentine ant (Linepithema humile)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS

Grape

Scientific name(s) - Family: Vitaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Vitis spp.
Alternative common name(s):
Description: A woody vines of the genus Vitis, bearing clusters of edible berries and widely cultivated in many species and varieties.
Different forms: The two genera of grapes are Vitis and Muscadinia
Uses: Human Consumption (Table grapes & Wine production)
Quarantine risks: Mealybugs (Pseudococcus spp.), grapevine moth caterpillar (Phalenoides glycinae), light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Botanically, the fruit is a berry.
Date Altered: 2/07/2007 12:00:00 AM

Honey Dew

Scientific name(s) - Family: Cucurbitaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Cucumis melo (Cultivar: inodorus)
Alternative common name(s):
Description: A honeydew has a round to slightly oval shape, typically 15-22 cm long. It generally ranges in weight from 1.8 to 3.6 kg. The flesh of a honeydew is pale green in colour, while the smooth peel ranges from greenish to yellow
Different forms:
Uses: Human consumption
Quarantine risks: Pest: Melon thrips (Thrips palmi)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. Honeydew is a cultivar group of muskmelon, Cucumis melo Inodorus group.

Kiwi Fruit

Scientific name(s) - Family: Actinidiaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Actinidia chinensis
Alternative common name(s): Chinese gooseberry
Description: Oval fruit, (5-8 cm long and 4.5-5.5 cm diameter). It has a hairy, dull green-brown skin. The flesh is bright green or golden with rows of small, black, edible seeds
Different forms:
Uses: Human consumption
Quarantine risks: Pests: scale insects
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS. The kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) was introduced into cultivation in New Zealand with seed brought from China in 1904

Lettuce

Scientific name(s) - Family: Asteraceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Lactuca sativa
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Leafy crop. Any of various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for their edible leaves. (Lactuca sativa) produces clusters of crisp, water-filled leaves
Different forms: There are four main types of lettuce grown in Australia, Iceberg (Crisphead), Butterhead, Cos (Romaine) and Loose leaf.
Uses: Human Consumption
Quarantine risks: Aphids (Aphididae), rutherglen bug (Nysius vinitor), western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), australian plague thrips (Thrips imaginis), mould beetle (Corticaria spp.), brown lacewings (Hemerobiidae) and vinegar flies (Drosophila sp)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS Lettuce - There are four main types of lettuce grown in Australia, Iceberg (Crisphead), Butterhead, Cos (Romaine) and Loose leaf.

Mango

Scientific name(s) - Family: Anacardiaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Mangifera indica
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Evergreen tree (Mangifera indica) cultivated for its edible fruit. The oval fruit of this tree, having a smooth rind and a flat one-seeded stone
Different forms:
Uses: Human Consumption
Quarantine risks: Pest: Mango seed or nut weevil - Sternochetus mangiferae
General comments: Cultivated in temperate climates REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS

Nectarine

Scientific name(s) - Family: Rosaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Prunus persica
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Nectarine - A smooth-skinned form of peach, Prunus persica
Different forms:
Uses: Human Consumption
Quarantine risks: Codling moth (Cydia pomonella), mealybugs (Pseudococcus sp.) Light Brown Apple Moth (Epiphyas postvittana)
General comments: A smooth-skinned form of peach, Prunus persica REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS

Onion

Scientific name(s) - Family: Alliaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Allium cepa
Alternative common name(s):
Description: A bulbous plant (Allium cepa) cultivated worldwide as a vegetable
Different forms:
Uses: Human consumption
Quarantine risks: Onion thrips (thrips tabaci) and sap beetles (Carpophilus spp.) Soil contamination
General comments: A bulbous plant REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS

Peaches

Scientific name(s) - Family: Rosaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Prunus persica
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Small to medium-sized fruit tree (Prunus persica) of the rose family.
Different forms:
Uses: Human Consumption
Quarantine risks: Codling moth (Cydia pomonella), mealybugs (Pseudococcus sp.) Light Brown Apple Moth (Epiphyas postvittana)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS It is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus within the genus Prunus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell.

Pear

Scientific name(s) - Family: Rosaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Pyrus spp.
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Pears range in shape from spherical to bell-shaped and in color from green to golden yellow to tawny red
Different forms:
Uses: Human consumption
Quarantine risks: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS Pest: Codling moth (Cydia pomonella), mealybugs (Pseudococcus sp.) Light Brown Apple Moth (Epiphyas postvittana)
General comments:

Persimmon

Scientific name(s) - Family: Ebenaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Diospyros kaki
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Tomato shaped, round, with a slightly elongated, pointed base. Persimmons are generally light yellow-orange to dark red-orange in colour. Orange skin and flesh.
Different forms:
Uses:
Quarantine risks: Pests: Fruit fly,thrips, fruit piercing moths, and stem girdlers.
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS The most popular early varieties are `Izu' (one month before `Fuyu') and `Jiro' (two weeks before `Fuyu'), and `Suruga' (two weeks after `Fuyu') is the most popular late season variety.

Plum

Scientific name(s) - Family: Rosaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Prunus domesticus
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Prunus genus, bearing smooth-skinned, fleshy, edible fruit with a single hard-shelled stone that encloses the seed.
Different forms:
Uses: Human consumption
Quarantine risks: Pest: Codling moth (Cydia pomonella), mealybugs (Pseudococcus sp.) Light Brown Apple Moth (Epiphyas postvittana)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS Stone (drupe) fruits. The smooth-skinned fruit has a fleshy, juicy exterior and a hard interior stone or pit.

Rockmelon

Scientific name(s) - Family: Cucurbitaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Cucumis melo
Alternative common name(s):
Description: Cucumis melo reticulatus (or sometimes C. melo melo var. cantalupensis). It is a round melon with firm, orange, moderately-sweet flesh and a thin reticulated light-brown rind
Different forms:
Uses: Human consumption
Quarantine risks: Pest: Thrips (Thrips sp.), pepper fruit fly (Atherigona sp.), metallic green tomato flies (Lamprolonchaea sp.) and vinegar flies (Drosophila sp.)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS It is named reticulatus due to its net-like (or reticulated) skin covering. In Australia and New Zealand, it is usually called rockmelon due to the rock-like appearance of the skin of the fruit

Tomato

Scientific name(s) - Family: Solanaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Lycopersicon esculentum
Alternative common name(s): CARD UNDER CONSTRUCTION
Description:
Different forms:
Uses:
Quarantine risks: Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera), potato moth (Phthorimaea operculella)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS

Watermelon

Scientific name(s) - Family: Cucurbitaceae
Scientific name(s) - Genus/Species: Citrullus lanatus
Alternative common name(s):
Description:
Different forms:
Uses:
Quarantine risks: Pest: Melon aphid - Aphis gossypii Disease: Bacterial fruit blotch of melons - bacterium (Acidovorax avenae sub. sp. citrulli)
General comments: REMEMBER- ALWAYS CONFIRM THE COMMODITY SPECIFIC IMPORTING COUNTRY REQUIREMENTS

Relevant eLearning Module

  • Export Inspections: Product Identification, Pests and Diseases

Questions?

  • You can contact your Regional Plant Export Program Manager to clarify any aspects of this volume in the first instance.
  • You can also direct a specific question or provide feedback to Plant Exports Training

Volume 4 | Index | Volume 6a

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