We have completed a final report for the fresh decrowned pineapples (Ananas comosus) from Taiwan risk analysis. We will now verify that Taiwan can meet the import conditions.
When we do a risk analysis, we:
- review the science on pests and diseases of concern
- assess and analyse biosecurity risks
- develop risk management measures, if required
- consult the public on the draft report and then review comments
- publish the final report
- verify that the country can meet the import conditions
- develop import conditions
- publish import conditions in our Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON).
About the risk analysis
We initiated this risk analysis because Taiwan requested market access for fresh decrowned pineapples. Learn more about why we carry out risk analyses and our international obligations.
This risk analysis was conducted in accordance with Section 174 of the Biosecurity Act 2015. This is because we conducted an assessment of the potential quarantine pests associated with fresh decrowned pineapples from Taiwan and found that:
- the pests of concern were the same, or of the same pest groups, as those pests that had been assessed previously for other horticultural goods
- there are risk management measures already established for these pests or pest groups.
Summary of the final report
We recommend that the import of fresh decrowned pineapples from Taiwan be permitted provided they meet the biosecurity import conditions. All imports must come from commercial production areas of Taiwan.
Five quarantine pests and two regulated articles (regulated thrips) associated with pineapples are present in Taiwan, and need risk management measures to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. These pests are:
- Mealybugs: grey pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes), papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus), Madeira mealybug (Phenacoccus madeirensis), Pacific mealybug (Planococcus minor), and Jack Beardsley mealybug (Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi)
- Thrips: cotton thrips (Frankliniella schultzei) and onion thrips (Thrips tabaci).
These thrips are regulated articles because they can carry and spread orthotospoviruses that are quarantine pests for Australia.
Risk management measures
We recommend pre-export methyl bromide fumigation to reduce the risk of these pests arriving in Australia via the pineapples from Taiwan pathway.
Your feedback on the draft report
Based off stakeholder comments, and a review of scientific literature, we have made a number of changes to the risk analysis. These changes include:
- amendments to the text of Chapter 3: ‘Taiwan’s commercial production practices for pineapples’, to provide further clarity on the processes for removing the basal leaves, crown and stem material on pineapples
- amendments to the text of Chapter 5: ‘Pest risk management’, to clarify that the risk mitigation measure of methyl bromide fumigation is to be conducted in Taiwan prior to export
- addition of Appendix B: ‘Issues raised in stakeholder comments’ which summarises the key issues raised, and how they were considered by the department in the final report, for example, evidence supporting the assessment that methyl bromide fumigation is an effective treatment to manage mealybugs present in the blossom cups of pineapples
- minor corrections, rewording and editorial changes for consistency, clarity and web-accessibility.
Download submissions on the draft report
Availalble until August 2020.
Published submissions may not meet Australian Government accessibility requirements as they have not been prepared by us. If you have difficulty accessing these files, contact us for help.
Download the final report
If you have difficulty accessing these files, visit web accessibility for help.
We released the draft report on 29 August 2018 for a 60 calendar day public consultation period, closing on 29 October 2018.
Download draft report
Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, August 2018.
Available until August 2020.
If you have difficulty accessing these files, visit
web accessibility for assistance.
More information is available in the Announcement Information Paper.
Australia and Taiwan have a strong two-way trade relationship. In 2017/18, Taiwan was Australia’s 13th largest market for Australian agricultural exports. In 2017/18 total trade with Taiwan was valued at $13.97 billion. Major Australian agricultural exports to Taiwan include meat, wheat and dairy.
Pineapple industry in Taiwan
Pineapples are produced in the central and southern regions of Taiwan where a subtropical or tropical climate predominates. In 2013, Taiwan produced approximately 385,000 tonnes of pineapples.
Taiwan can produce pineapples all year round. The main production and export season ranges from February through to September. Taiwan currently exports pineapples to China, Japan, Korea, Canada, Singapore and Hong Kong. In 2015, Taiwan exported approximately 10,000 tonnes of pineapples.
Pineapple industry in Australia
Australia can produce pineapples all year round, with peak season occurring between November and February. In 2017/18, Australia produced 76,002 tonnes of pineapples, with a production value of $53.4 million.
The major pineapple growing regions in Australia are: Mareeba and Rollingstone (North Queensland); Yeppoon (Central Queensland); and Bundaberg, Maryborough, Glasshouse Mountains, Beerwah, Wamuran and Elimbah (South East Queensland).
Australia currently permits imports of fresh pineapples from the Philippines, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka and Thailand, provided they meet Australia’s biosecurity import conditions, which includes removal of the crown. In 2018, Australia imported around 113 tonnes of pineapples (fresh or dried) from Thailand and Sri Lanka.
Australia is able to export pineapples to New Zealand, Korea, Japan and Indonesia. In 2018, Australia exported around 3 tonnes of pineapples (fresh or dried) to New Zealand.
Before imports can commence we will:
- Verify that Taiwan can meet our specified import conditions.
- Publish import conditions on the Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON).
- Issue import permits to importers who meet the import conditions.
The decision to commence imports will be a commercial decision between an exporter in Taiwan and an importer in Australia. The importer must meet the import conditions as set out in BICON.
Register as a stakeholder
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For more information, email
imports or phone 1800 900 090 (option 1, option 1).