Overview

​​​​​​​​​​​Chapter 1: Overview

H Patterson, L Georgeson, R Noriega, A Koduah, F Helidoniotis, J Larcombe, S Nicol and A Williams

The Australian Government's approach to fisheries management includes maintaining fish stocks at ecologically sustainable levels and, within this context, maximising the net economic returns (NER) to the Australian community (DAFF 2007). It also considers the impact of fishing activities on non-target species and the long-term sustainability of the marine environment, as required by the Fisheries Management Act 1991 and the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). This requires an understanding of the biological status of stocks, the economic status of fisheries and the state of marine environments that support fisheries.

Fishery status reports 2017 provides an independent assessment of the biological status of fish stocks and the economic status of fisheries managed, or jointly managed, by the Australian Government (Commonwealth fisheries) (Figure 1.1). It summarises the performance of these fisheries in 2016 and over time, against the requirements of fisheries legislation and policy. The reports assess all key commercial species from Australian Government–managed fisheries and examines the broader impact of fisheries on the environment, including on non-target species.

To complete these reports, ABARES uses data and information sourced from agencies such as the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA) and regional fisheries management organisations. The reports use information on catch and fishing effort, and other information for the most recent complete fishing season that is available, and the most recent stock assessments. Commonwealth fisheries operate with different fishing season dates, so the currency of catch data in the reports varies. To compare status from year to year, biological and environmental status is presented for 2016. Economic status is presented for the 2015–16 financial year.

FIGURE 1.1: Relative catch levels of Australian Government–managed fisheries, 2016

Fishing vessels in Hobart
Tim Emery, ABARES

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1.1 Assessing biological status

Assessments of stock status provide an indication of whether the current size of a fish stock is above the level at which the stock is considered to be overfished (biomass status) and whether current levels of catch will allow the stock to remain in that state (fishing mortality status). Stock status is expressed in relation to the reference points prescribed by the Commonwealth Fisheries Harvest Strategy Policy (HSP; DAFF 2007).

Biomass (B) status relates to how many fish there are—specifically, whether the biomass in the year being assessed is above the level at which the risk to the stock is considered to be unacceptable. The HSP defines this level as the limit reference point, below which the stock is considered to be overfished.

Fishing mortality (F) status relates to the level of fishing pressure on a stock—specifically, whether fishing mortality in the year being assessed is likely to result in the stock becoming overfished, or prevent the stock from rebuilding from an overfished state. If fishing mortality exceeds either of these thresholds, a stock is considered to be subject to overfishing.

Stocks are included in the Fishery status reports if they meet one or more of the criteria below. Conversely, stocks may be removed from the reports if they do not meet at least one of these criteria:

  • a target or key commercial species in a fishery managed solely or jointly by the Australian Government
  • a species or stock managed under a total allowable catch (TAC)
  • a species or stock previously classified as ‘overfished’ that has not yet recovered to above the limit reference point.

In addition, stocks may be included if they meet one or more of the criteria below. Such stocks are assessed on a case-by-case basis:

  • a species previously included in the Fishery status reports as a single stock that has been reclassified as multiple stocks to align with species biology or management
  • a byproduct species of ecological and/or economic importance, if it meets one or more of the following criteria
    • for several consecutive years or fishing seasons, the total catch (landings and discards) of the byproduct species is approximately equal to, or greater than, that of any other stock currently targeted and/or assessed in that fishery or sector
    • the value of the total catch landed of the byproduct species is considered to be an important economic component of the fishery or sector
    • the byproduct species or stock is listed as being at high risk from fishing activity in the ecological risk assessment process for the fishery or sector.

1.2 Biological status in 2016

Fishery status reports 2017 assesses 94 fish stocks across 22 fisheries (Figure 1.2); 65 stocks were assessed across 9 fisheries that are managed solely by AFMA on behalf of the Australian Government, and 29 stocks were assessed across 13 fisheries that are managed jointly with other Australian jurisdictions or other countries. One new stock is included in Fishery status reports 2017: the toothfish stock in the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) exploratory toothfish fishery in division 58.4.1, which was formally fished by an Australian vessel for the first time in 2016. This is a jointly managed stock because it occurs in the area covered by the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources; it includes both Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) and Antarctic toothfish (D.mawsoni).

The status of the 94 fish stocks managed solely or jointly by the Australian Government generally improved in 2016, compared with the previous year (Figures 1.3 and 1.4):

  • The number of stocks classified as not subject to overfishing increased to 81 (79 in 2015), and the number of stocks classified as not overfished remained at 69. Of these, 65 stocks were both not subject to overfishing and not overfished (66 in 2015).
  • The number of stocks classified as subject to overfishing remained at 3, and the number of stocks classified as overfished remained at 11. Of these, 1 stock (bigeye tuna [Thunnus obesus], fished in the Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery [ETBF]) was both subject to overfishing and overfished (1 in 2015).
  • The number of stocks classified as uncertain with regard to fishing mortality decreased to 10 (11 in 2015), but the number of stocks classified as uncertain with regard to biomass increased to 14 (13 in 2015). Of these, 1 stock was uncertain with respect to both fishing mortality and biomass.

Fishery status reports 2017 shows a continuation of the general trend of improvement in the biological status of fish stocks in Australian Government–managed fisheries—specifically, the increasing number of stocks classified as not subject to overfishing and not overfished (Figures 1.3 and 1.4). Rapid increases in the number of such stocks occurred before 2009; this was associated with increasing numbers of stocks being classified in the reports, as well as the influence of the 2005 Ministerial Direction, and the associated implementation of the HSP and the Securing our Fishing Future structural adjustment. The 2017 reports are the fourth consecutive year that no stocks in fisheries solely managed by the Australian Government have been classified as subject to overfishing. However, there is ongoing uncertainty surrounding the fishing mortality status of some overfished stocks (discussed further below).

In general, the 2017 reports show continued improvements in our ability to classify stock status. The number of stocks classified as uncertain with respect to biomass has shown a general decline after an increase between 2004 and 2007 (Figure 1.4). The increased certainty in stock status has been due to the factors mentioned above, such as the implementation of the HSP, and also investment in the Reducing Uncertainty in Stock Status project (Larcombe et al. 2015). However, the reduction in the number of stocks that are uncertain with respect to their fishing mortality status has plateaued since 2011 (Figure 1.3).

Status outcomes are summarised separately for stocks in fisheries solely managed by the Australian Government and stocks in fisheries that are jointly managed. This allows an evaluation of performance of fisheries management against the relevant legislation and policy, which may differ between these groups of fisheries.

FIGURE 1.2 Biological status of fish stocks in 2016, by fishery or sector
FIGURE 1.3 Fishing mortality status (number of stocks), 2004 to 2016
FIGURE 1.4 Biomass status (number of stocks), 2004 to 2016

Stocks that have changed status

The status of four stocks in fisheries solely managed by the Australian Government changed in 2016 (Table 1.1). Two changes reflect increased certainty around the level of fishing mortality, while one stock has become more uncertain in relation to fishing mortality and one stock is more uncertain in relation to biomass. No stocks managed jointly have changed status.

The level of uncertainty around the status of commercial scallop (Pecten fumatus) in the Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery (BSCZSF) decreased as a result of improved biomass estimates from surveys in 2016 and 2017. In addition, the level of escapement (the percentage of the known biomass not caught in a year) has been high. The stock was therefore classified as not overfished and not subject to overfishing.

Similarly, the level of uncertainty around the fishing mortality status of white teatfish (Holothuria fuscogilva) in the Coral Sea Fishery decreased because there was no catch in 2015–16. Although the biomass status remains uncertain, the stock is now classified as not subject to overfishing.

In contrast, the level of uncertainty around fishing mortality status increased for ocean perch (Helicolenus barathri, H. percoides) in the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (SESSF) Commonwealth Trawl Sector (CTS). In 2016–17, the total mortality, including discards, exceeded the recommended biological catch (RBC). A review of the past several RBCs compared with total mortality indicated that the RBCs in 2013–14 and 2014–15 were also exceeded. The impact of this mortality on the biomass level is unknown, and the stock is now classified as uncertain for fishing mortality.

Finally, the level of uncertainty around biomass status for red-legged banana prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) in the Northern Prawn Fishery (NPF) has increased. Although the most recent estimate of biomass (2014) was well above the target reference point, there was no assessment in 2015 and 2016 because of a lack of data following low catch-and-effort levels. In addition, there is uncertainty and some concern about the cause of these lower catch levels. The biomass status of the red-legged banana prawn stock is therefore now uncertain.

TABLE 1.1 Stocks with a changed status in 2016 and their status in 2015, for stocks managed solely by the Australian Government
FisheryCommon name (scientific name)2015
Fishing mortality
2015
Biomass
2016
Fishing mortality
2016
Biomass
Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop FisheryCommercial scallop (Pecten fumatus)UncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishing Not overfished
Coral Sea FisheryWhite teatfish
(Holothuria fuscogilva)
UncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishing Uncertain
Northern Prawn FisheryRed-legged banana prawn
(Fenneropenaeus indicus)
Not subject to overfishing Not overfished Not subject to overfishing Uncertain
Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery: Commonwealth Trawl SectorOcean perch
(Helicolenus barathri, H. percoides)
Not subject to overfishing Not overfished UncertainNot overfished

Stocks classified as subject to overfishing and/or overfished

Stocks classified as overfished or subject to overfishing remained the same as in 2015 (Tables 1.2 and 1.3). Table 1.2 summarises the status determinations and why the stocks were classified as overfished or subject to overfishing; the full details and evidence are provided in the relevant chapters. Seven stocks in fisheries managed solely by the Australian Government were classified as overfished in 2016 (Tables 1.2 and 1.3). These stocks occur in the SESSF and are subject to stock rebuilding strategies, as required by the Commonwealth HSP. Blue warehou, eastern gemfish, orange roughy, gulper sharks and school shark are listed as conservation dependent under the EPBC Act. None of these stocks were classified as subject to overfishing in 2016; however, five were classified as uncertain with respect to fishing mortality status (discussed below).

Six stocks in jointly managed fisheries were classified as either overfished or subject to overfishing in 2016. Classification of these stocks remained the same as in 2015 (Table 1.2).

Assessing fishing mortality status for overfished stocks

It is becoming increasingly difficult to assess fishing mortality status for a number of overfished stocks: blue warehou, school shark, eastern gemfish and redfish. This is due to a range of factors, including a lack of data, or uncertainty in the catch data and in the assessments. These species are subject to rebuilding strategies, which specify a biologically reasonable time frame for recovery to a biomass above the limit reference point. Although all overfished stocks have an RBC of zero, their rebuilding strategies include an incidental catch allowance to account for catches that are regarded as ‘unavoidable' when fishing for other species; for example, fishers often catch school shark while fishing for gummy shark (Mustelus antarcticus).

Catches that breach these allowances have been reported for each species since the implementation of their rebuilding strategies. Such breaches constitute overfishing for the purposes of status determination. There is also some level of discarding of these species, which can vary between years and can be difficult to estimate. Information on the level of discarding is often not available for the most recent season at the time of drafting of these reports. When the known retained catch of the species approaches the incidental catch allowance, it is often difficult to be certain that the total catch has not exceeded the allowance because of the uncertainties in discard estimates. This increases the uncertainty about the level of influence the incidental catch of the species (and potential overfishing) may have on its rebuilding time frame. Furthermore, the assessment models that are used to develop the catch allowances generally assume average conditions (for example, recruitment) for their projections. The purpose of these projections is not to track recovery on an annual basis but to predict an ‘on average' expected rebuilding time frame. A failure to detect a trend in fishery data that resembles the trajectory of the projection is not necessarily evidence that the species is not responding but may reflect ‘non-average' conditions. Moreover, some assessments are more than six years old, and the evidence for fishing mortality effects is inferred from indicators rather than estimation via an assessment model. These models also rarely include ecosystem effects, such as changes in trophic interactions, which may influence the effect that fishing mortality has on rebuilding time frames.

TABLE 1.2 Stocks classified as subject to overfishing and/or overfished in 2016, and their status in 2015
Stocks in fisheries managed solely by the Australian Government
FisheryCommon name (scientific name)2015
Fishing mortality
2015
Biomass
2016
Fishing mortality
2016
Biomass
Comments
SESSF: CTS and SHS
Chapter 9
Blue warehou
(Seriolella brama)
UncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedTotal removals are below the incidental catch allowance, but the level of fishing mortality that will allow the stock to rebuild is unknown. There is no evidence that the stock is rebuilding.
SESSF: CTS and SHS
Chapter 9
Gemfish, eastern zone (Rexea solandri)UncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedBiomass is below the limit reference point. Uncertainty remains around total fishing mortality and rebuilding to the limit reference point within the specified time frame.
SESSF: CTS and SHS
Chapter 9
Gulper sharks (Centrophorus harrissoni, C. moluccensis, C. zeehaani)UncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedPopulations are likely to be highly depleted, and fishing mortality is uncertain despite low landed catch and protection through closures.
SESSF: CTS
Chapter 9
Orange roughy, southern zone
(Hoplostethus atlanticus)
Not subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedClosure of most areas deeper than 700 m and negligible catches. No updated stock assessment.
SESSF: CTS
Chapter 9
Orange roughy, western zone (Hoplostethus atlanticus)Not subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedClosure of most areas deeper than 700 m and negligible catches. No updated stock assessment.
SESSF: CTS
Chapter 9
Redfish
(Centroberyx affinis)
UncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedBiomass is below the limit reference point. Catch is above the RBC, and it is unclear whether total removals are above the level that will allow rebuilding.
SESSF: SGSHS
Chapter 12
School shark
(Galeorhinus galeus)
UncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertain if total mortality will allow recovery in required time frame. Estimate of pup production is below 20% of unexploited levels.
Stocks in fisheries managed jointly by the Australian Government
FisheryCommon name (scientific name)2015
Fishing mortality
2015
Biomass
2016
Fishing mortality
2016
Biomass
Comments
South Tasman Rise Trawl Fishery
Chapter 28
Orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)Not subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedFishery closed under domestic arrangements since 2007 as a result of stock depletion.
Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer Fishery
Chapter 19
Sandfish (Holothuria scabra)UncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertain impact of illegal foreign catch in recent years. Most recent full survey (2009) indicated that the stock was overfished.
ETBF
Chapter 21
Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus)Subject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedMost recent estimate of biomass (2014) is below the limit reference point. Ocean-wide estimates of fishing mortality exceed the level required for MSY to be realised.
SBTF
Chapter 23
Southern bluefin tuna
(Thunnus maccoyii)
UncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedThe estimate of spawning biomass is well below 20% of unfished biomass. The global TAC, set in line with the management procedure, should allow rebuilding. Significant uncertainty remains around unaccounted catch, which, if occurring, substantially reduces the probability of the stock rebuilding.
WTBF
Chapter 24
Striped marlin (Kajikia audax)Subject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedMost recent estimate of biomass is above the limit reference point. Current fishing mortality exceeds the level required for MSY to be realised.
WTBF
Chapter 24
Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)Subject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedMost recent estimate of spawning biomass is above the limit reference point. Current fishing mortality exceeds the level required for MSY to be realised.

Note: CTS Commonwealth Trawl Sector. ETBF Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery. MSY Maximum sustainable yield. RBC Recommended biological catch. SBTF Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery. SESSF Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery. SGSHS Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook sectors. SHS Scalefish Hook Sector. TAC Total allowable catch. WTBF Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery.

These realities can make it unclear whether incidental catch is hindering recovery of a stock and what time frame of recovery is biologically reasonable, and therefore whether a stock under a rebuilding plan is subject to overfishing. This is the case for blue warehou, school shark, eastern gemfish and redfish. It is becoming increasingly apparent that standard data collection and assessment protocols are unable to deliver a concise picture of fishing mortality status for these overfished stocks.

Status of Australian fish stocks reports

In December 2016, the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC) released Status of Australian fish stocks reports 2016, the third in the series. The reports provide a national assessment of the status of key wild-capture fish stocks that are managed by the Australian Government, the states and the Northern Territory. The reports were initiated in 2012 by the FRDC and ABARES. They are developed collaboratively by the FRDC, ABARES, CSIRO, and government fishery research agencies in all states and the Northern Territory. The 2016 reports provide assessments for 294 stocks across 83 key species (or species complexes). The reports consider the same biological information as the Fishery status reports, but interpret that information within a nationally agreed classification system (Appendix A). This national1 reporting framework is designed to improve the ability to compare the status of fish stocks across Australia.

Southern bluefin tuna
Matt Daniel, AFMA

TABLE 1.3 Biological stock status of all stocks assessed in 2016, and their status since 1992 coloured version PDF [472 KB, 9 pages]

TABLE 1.3 Biological stock status of all stocks assessed in 2016, and their status since 1992
Stocks in fisheries managed solely by the Australian Government
FisheryCommon name (scientific name)Status
1992
Status
1993
Status
1994
Status
1996
Status
1997
Status
1998
Status
1999
Status
2001–02
Status
2002–03
Status
2004
Fishing mortality
Status
2004
Biomass
Status
2005
Fishing mortality
Status
2005
Biomass
Status
2006
Fishing mortality
Status
2006
Biomass
Status
2007
Fishing mortality
Status
2007
Biomass
Status
2008
Fishing mortality
Status
2008
Biomass
Status
2009
Fishing mortality
Status
2009
Biomass
Status
2010
Fishing mortality
Status
2010
Biomass
Status
2011
Fishing mortality
Status
2011
Biomass
Status
2012
Fishing mortality
Status
2012
Biomass
Status
2013
Fishing mortality
Status
2013
Biomass
Status
2014
Fishing mortality
Status
2014
Biomass
Status
2015
Fishing mortality
Status
2015
Biomass
Status
2016
Fishing mortality
Status
2016
Biomass
Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop FisheryCommercial scallop
(Pecten fumatus)
Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Overfished OverfishedOverfishedUncertain Overfished Uncertain Overfished Not subject to overfishingOverfished Not subject to overfishingOverfished Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain UncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Coral Sea Fishery: Sea Cucumber SectorBlack teatfish
(Holothuria whitmaei)
OverfishedUncertain Overfished Uncertain Overfished Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Coral Sea Fishery: Sea Cucumber SectorPrickly redfish
(Thelenota ananas)
Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Coral Sea Fishery: Sea Cucumber SectorSurf redfish
(Actinopyga mauritiana)
Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Coral Sea Fishery: Sea Cucumber SectorWhite teatfish
(Holothuria fuscogilva)
Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain UncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertain
Coral Sea Fishery: Sea Cucumber SectorOther sea cucumber species (-11 spp.)Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertain
Coral Sea Fishery: Aquarium SectorMultiple speciesUncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Coral Sea Fishery: Lobster and Trochus SectorTropical rock lobster
(Panulirus ornatus, possibly other species)
Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Coral Sea Fishery: Line and Trap SectorMixed reef fish and sharksUncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertain
Coral Sea Fishery: Trawl and Trap SectorNumerous fish, shark and crustacean speciesUncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertain
Northern Prawn FisheryRed-legged banana prawn
(Fenneropenaeus indicus)
Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingUncertain
Northern Prawn FisheryWhite banana prawn
(Fenneropenaeus merguiensis)
Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Northern Prawn FisheryBrown tiger prawn
(Penaeus esculentus)
Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Northern Prawn FisheryGrooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Northern Prawn FisheryBlue endeavour prawn (Metapenaeus endeavouri)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedOverfished Overfished Not overfishedUncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Northern Prawn FisheryRed endeavour prawn (Metapenaeus ensis)Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain UncertainUncertain Uncertain
North West Slope Trawl FisheryScampi
(Metanephrops australiensis, M. boschmai, M. velutinus)
Not subject to overfishingNot subject to overfishingUncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Small Pelagic FisheryAustralian sardine
(Sardinops sagax)
Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Small Pelagic FisheryBlue mackerel, east (Scomber australasicus)Uncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Small Pelagic FisheryBlue mackerel, west (Scomber australasicus)Uncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Small Pelagic FisheryJack mackerel, east
(Trachurus declivis)
Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Small Pelagic FisheryJack mackerel, west
(Trachurus declivis)
Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Small Pelagic FisheryRedbait, east
(Emmelichthys nitidus)
Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
Small Pelagic FisheryRedbait, west
(Emmelichthys nitidus)
Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingUncertain Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors
Blue-eye trevalla
(Hyperoglyphe antarctica)
Uncertain Uncertain Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertain Uncertain Uncertain Uncertain Not overfished Uncertain Not overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfished Uncertain Not overfished Uncertain Not overfished Not subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors
Blue grenadier
(Macruronus novaezelandiae)
UncertainNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors
Blue warehou
(Seriolella brama)
UncertainUncertainNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainNot overfished subject to overfishingNot overfishedOverfishedOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfished UncertainOverfished UncertainOverfished UncertainUncertainUncertainOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Deepwater sharks, eastern zone (18 spp.)UncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertain
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Deepwater sharks, western zone (18 spp.)UncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertain
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Eastern school whiting (Sillago flindersi)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Flathead
(Platycephalus richardsoni and 4 other spp.)
Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedSubject to oversfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors
Gemfish, eastern zone (Rexea solandri)OverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfished Subject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfished UncertainOverfished UncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors
Gemfish, western zone (Rexea solandri)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors
Gulper sharks
(Centrophorus harrissoni, C. moluccensis, C. zeehaani)
UncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors
Jackass morwong
(Nemadactylus macropterus)
Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingUncertainUncertainUncertainSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
John dory (Zeus faber)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Mirror dory
(Zenopsis nebulosa)
Not overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Ocean jacket, eastern zone
(Nelusetta ayraud)
Not overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors
Ocean perch
(Helicolenus barathri, H. percoides)
Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedUncertainNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Orange roughy, Cascade Plateau
(Hoplostethus atlanticus)
Subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Orange roughy, eastern zone
(Hoplostethus atlanticus)
Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedOverfishedOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Orange roughy, southern zone
(Hoplostethus atlanticus)
Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedOverfishedOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Orange roughy, western zone
(Hoplostethus atlanticus)
Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedOverfishedOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Oreodory: smooth, Cascade Plateau
(Pseudocyttus maculatus)
UncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Oreodory: smooth, non-Cascade Plateau
(Pseudocyttus maculatus)
UncertainOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Oreodory: other
(Neocyttus rhomboidalis, Allocyttus niger, A. verrucosus)
UncertainOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors
Pink ling (Genypterus blacodes)Not overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedUncertainUncertainSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Redfish, eastern
(Centroberyx affinis)
OverfishedOverfishedUncertainNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedOverfishedOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors
Ribaldo (Mora moro)UncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Royal red prawn
(Haliporoides sibogae)
UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors
Silver trevally
(Pseudocaranx georgianus)
UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainOverfishedSubject to overfishingSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF:
Commonwealth Trawl Sector
Silver warehou
(Seriolella punctata)
UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishing Not subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF: East Coast Deepwater Trawl SectorAlfonsino (Beryx splendens)UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF: Great Australian Bight Trawl SectorBight redfish
(Centroberyx gerrardi)
UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF: Great Australian Bight Trawl SectorDeepwater flathead
(Platycephalus conatus)
UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF: Great Australian Bight Trawl SectorOcean jacket, west
(Nelusetta ayraud)
Not overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF: Great Australian Bight Trawl SectorOrange roughy
(Hoplostethus atlanticus)
UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertain
SESSF: Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook sectorsElephantfish
(Callorhinchus milii)
UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF: Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook sectorsGummy shark
(Mustelus antarcticus)
OverfishedOverfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF: Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook sectorsSawshark
(Pristiophorus
cirratus, P. nudipinnis)
UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
SESSF: Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook sectorsSchool shark
(Galeorhinus galeus)
OverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfished
Southern Squid Jig FisheryGould's squid
(Nototodarus gouldi)
Not overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Western
Deepwater Trawl Fishery
Bugs (bacus spp.)UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertain
Western
Deepwater Trawl Fishery
Ruby snapper (Etelis carbunculus)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertain
Macquarie Island Toothfish FisheryPatagonian toothfish
(Dissostichus eleginoides)
UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Stocks in fisheries managed jointly by the Australian Government
South Tasman Rise Trawl FisheryOrange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)UncertainUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfished
Torres Strait Finfish FisheryCoral trout (Plectropomus spp., Variola spp.)UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Torres Strait Finfish FisherySpanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson)UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Torres Strait Tropical Rock Lobster FisheryTropical rock lobster (Panulirus ornatus)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainOverfishedOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Torres Strait Prawn FisheryBrown tiger prawn (Penaeus esculentus)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Torres Strait Prawn FisheryBlue endeavour prawn (Metapenaeus endeavouri)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer FisheryBlack teatfish (Holothuria whitmaei)OverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer FisheryPrickly redfish (Thelenota ananas)UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer FisherySandfish (Holothuria scabra)OverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedNot subject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfished
Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer FisheryWhite teatfish (Holothuria fuscogilva)UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer FisheryOther sea cucumbers (up to 18 spp.)UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertain
Torres Strait Trochus FisheryTrochus (Trochus niloticus)UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingUncertain
Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery Striped marlin (Kajikia audax) UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Eastern Tuna and Billfish FisherySwordfish (Xiphias gladius)UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfished
Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery Albacore (Thunnus alalunga)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus)UncertainUncertainNot overfishedNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfished
Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Skipjack Tuna Fishery: Pacific OceanSkipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis)Not overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Skipjack Tuna Fishery: Indian OceanSkipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Not overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Southern Bluefin Tuna FisherySouthern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii)OverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfishedUncertainOverfished
Western Tuna and Billfish FisheryStriped marlin (Kajikia audax)UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingOverfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfished
Western Tuna and Billfish FisherySwordfish (Xiphias gladius)UncertainUncertainUncertainNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingUncertainSubject to overfishingUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Western Tuna and Billfish FisheryAlbacore (Thunnus alalunga)UncertainUncertainUncertainNot overfishedNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedUncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedUncertainUncertainSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Western Tuna and Billfish FisheryBigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus)UncertainUncertainUncertainUncertainOverfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Western Tuna and Billfish FisheryYellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)UncertainUncertainUncertainNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainUncertainSubject to overfishingUncertainSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfishedSubject to overfishingNot overfished
Heard Island and McDonald Islands FisheryMackerel icefish (Champsocephalus gunnari)Not overfishedUncertainUncertainNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
Heard Island and McDonald Islands FisheryPatagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides)Not overfishedUncertainUncertainNot overfishedNot overfishedNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedUncertainNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
CCAMLR Exploratory toothfish fisheries
88.2
Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides, D. mawsoni)Not subject to overfishingNot overfishedNot subject to overfishingNot overfished
CCAMLR Exploratory toothfish fisheries
58.4.1
Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides, D. mawsoni)Not subject to overfishingUncertain

Notes: CCAMLR Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. SESSF Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery. Individual stocks may have been classified as multispecies stocks in earlier years. The status determination process changed in 2004—refer to Chapter 30 for more information. A '—' indicates that the stock was not assessed.

1.3 Economic status

Assessing economic status

The evaluation of economic status in the Fishery status reports assesses each fishery's performance against the economic objective of the Fisheries Management Act 1991 to maximise NER to the Australian community, within the constraints of ecologically sustainable development. Economic status is expressed in relation to the target reference points prescribed by the HSP, which are set at more conservative levels than the limit reference points used to assess biological status. At the stock level, economic status indicates whether the biomass level is at a point that is consistent with achieving the HSP target reference point—a biomass target consistent with achieving maximum economic yield (MEY) from the fishery. When biomass is below the target reference point and, over time, moving further away from it, rebuilding of the stock would be required to bring the biomass closer to the target reference point. When biomass is above the target reference point, fishing down the stock to the reference point is required to maximise NER. At the fishery level, moving stocks towards their respective target reference points leads to an improvement in the economic status of the fishery and helps ensure that the economic objective of the Fisheries Management Act 1991 is met.

Determining whether economic status of a fishery is improving or deteriorating is constrained by data limitations and relies on interpretation of a number of economic indicators. For example, an increasing trend in fishery-level NER driven predominantly by an increasing trend in the economic productivity of a fishery provides a strong indicator that the economic status of the fishery is improving. However, an increasing trend in fishery-level NER caused predominantly by favourable movements in market prices for inputs and outputs is not conclusive evidence that the fishery is moving closer to its target, because changes in market prices change the position of the economic target reference point.

Trawl catch
Mike Gerner, AFMA

The ABARES financial and economic surveys are important for estimating NER and thereby assessing the economic performance of fisheries managed by the Australian Government. NER estimates provide a full account of the return to the community from managing fisheries because they include all revenues earned and costs incurred. These costs include economic costs (for example, wages, use of family labour in the business, economic depreciation), fishery management costs (including those components not cost recovered from industry) and the full cost of fuel—that is, inclusive of fuel tax credits gained by the fishery. As a result, NER are typically lower than aggregate fishery profitability derived through an accounting framework, which only consider explicit costs and revenues in deriving estimates of profits. To assess economic status, movements in NER are assessed alongside other economic indicators, including the extent to which stocks managed in the fishery have moved closer to their respective economic target reference points.

Direct estimates of NER are only available for key Commonwealth fisheries for which ABARES routinely assesses financial and economic performance by surveying industry. Where direct estimates of NER are not available, a range of indicators are used to assess the economic performance of fisheries, and to make inferences about trends in NER. Effects of management arrangements and performance of the fishery against the HSP's MEY objective are also assessed. For jointly managed fisheries (to which the HSP does not apply), economic performance is evaluated against relevant management objectives. Table 1.4 presents a summary of indicators of economic performance.

Coral trout
Ashley Williams, ABARES

Economic status in 2015–16

Fishery status reports 2017 assesses the economic status of all fisheries managed solely and jointly by the Australian Government. These fisheries generated an estimated gross value of production (GVP) of $439 million in 2015–16, accounting for 26 per cent of wild-catch fisheries GVP in Australia ($1.75 billion).1 These fisheries also accounted for about 14.5 per cent of Australia's total fisheries and aquaculture GVP in 2015–16.

The Commonwealth fisheries GVP is dominated by production from four major fisheries that together accounted for 65 per cent of total fishery GVP. In 2015–16, the NPF was the most valuable single-method fishery, with a GVP of $124.0 million. The multisector SESSF was the second most valuable Commonwealth fishery, with a GVP of $73.0 million. The ETBF and the wild-catch sector of the Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery (SBTF) also made substantial contributions to fisheries GVP in 2015–16, with values of $48.8 million and $35.9 million, respectively (Figure 1.5).

FIGURE 1.5 Gross value of production of fisheries managed solely or jointly by the Australian Government, 2005–06 to 2015–16
TABLE 1.4 Indicators and summary of economic status of Commonwealth fisheries for 2015–16
FisheryPerformance relative to MEY targetNER trendFishing right latency in
fishing season
2015–16 fishery GVP (% change from 2014–15)2015–16 management costs (% share of
GVP)
Primary management instrumentComments about
economic status
Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop FisheryMEY target
not specified
Negative in 2009–10 and 2010–11 (–$1.1 million). Likely to be increasing in 2015–16 and 2016–17Low uncaught TAC$4.61 million
(+65%)
$0.27 million
(6%)
ITQs and spatial managementNER are likely to have improved since 2010–11 (the last available survey year) when NER were –$1.4 million. GVP in the 2015–16 financial year is estimated to be $4.6 million, around $1.3 million higher than GVP in 2010–11. Higher catch per dredge-hour and scallop prices, along with lower fuel prices and management costs, are likely to have improved NER in 2015–16 compared with 2010–11, although it is uncertain whether NER are now positive.
Coral Sea FisheryMEY target not specifiedNot availableHigh uncaught TAC in the non-aquarium part of the fisheryConfidential$0.12 million (confidential)Catch triggers and TACsEstimates of NER are not available. Catch in the Aquarium Sector increased substantially in 2015–16; however, because of a lack of information about the mix of fish caught, it is unclear how this may have affected NER. A high degree of latent effort in the non-aquarium part of the fishery suggests low NER.
Norfolk Island FisheryMEY target not specifiedNot availableOffshore fishery closed to commercial fishing. Unknown in the inshore fishery.Not availableNot availableInput controlsEconomic status is unknown.
Northern Prawn FisheryTiger prawn stocks approaching BMEY target. MEY targets not specified for banana prawnPositive and
increasing
Low unused effort$124.08 million (+15%)$1.81 million
(1%)
Individual transferable gear units (headrope length)NER were estimated at $5 million in 2012–13 and continued to improve in 2013–14 to $12 million as a result of improved prawn prices. In 2015–16, catch of tiger prawns increased by 88%, with proportionately less effort, raising the contribution of this high-value species to overall fishery GVP. Combined with higher prices received for tiger prawns and lower fuel prices, this indicates positive signs for NER in the fishery in 2015–16.
North West Slope Trawl FisheryMEY target not specifiedNot availableHigh non-participation by licence holdersConfidential$0.07 million (confidential)Limited entry and catch triggersEstimates of NER are not available, although the high degree of latent effort indicates that NER are likely to be low.
Small Pelagic
Fishery
MEY target not specifiedNot availableHigh uncaught TAC, typically above 90%, but reduced latency in the 2015–16 fishing seasonConfidential$1.20 million (confidential)ITQsEstimates of NER are not available for 2014–15 or 2015–16. A decrease in the level of catch in 2016–17 compared with the very high level of catch in 2015–16 suggests that GVP is likely to have declined in 2016–17. Changes in NER are uncertain because of a lack of information about changes in cost structures of the industry.
SESSF: Commonwealth Trawl and Scalefish Hook sectors aOf the five key species, most are close to BMEY targets. Overfished stocks require rebuilding for improvement in economic statusPositive but
decreasing
High uncaught TAC
(above 50% in the 2015–16 and 2016–17 fishing seasons)
$42.91 million
(+10%)
$2.39 million for
CTS (6% of CTS GVP)
ITQsNER for the CTS were $4.3 million in 2012–13 and $1.4 million in 2013–14 (preliminary). NER have been positive since 2002–03, partly driven by increased economic productivity, and lower fuel prices since 2014 have likely maintained this performance. Some key species are close to their BMEY targets, but economic status could still be improved with rebuilding of some overfished stocks. The disinclination of fishers to fish down blue grenadier stock may suggest that the proxy target is misaligned with the MEY objective, at least in the short term.
SESSF: East Coast Deepwater Trawl SectorFishing mortality below economic target reference pointNot availableHigh uncaught TAC
(100%)
Confidential$0.00 million (confidential)ITQsBefore 2014–15, high levels of latency indicated low NER. No fishing activity in 2014–15 and 2015–16 indicates that NER were zero in those years.
SESSF: Great Australian Bight Trawl SectorBight redfish and deepwater flathead above BMEY targetNot available but likely to be positive, and have increasedHigh uncaught TAC
(68%)
$7.69 million
(–10%)
$0.35 million
(5%)
ITQsNER are likely to have increased slightly in 2015–16. The positive impacts of lower effort and the ongoing fall in the price of fuel are likely to have more than offset the negative impact on NER of lower GVP.
SESSF: Shark Hook and Shark Gillnet sectors bGummy shark stock close to, or above, target. Biomass of school shark requires rebuildingTurned slightly negative in 2010–11 and 2011–12 for GHTS. Estimated to remain negative in 2013–14Low uncaught TAC $22.37 million
(+6%)
$2.21 million for GHTS (10% of GHTS GVP)ITQsNER in 2012–13 were –$2.9 million. Preliminary estimates for 2013–14 indicate that NER are likely to remain negative. Although gummy shark biomass is not constraining NER, the management of non-target species and marine mammal interactions has likely contributed to a fall in NER in recent years.
Southern Squid Jig FisheryMEY target not specifiedNot availableHigh non-participation by licence holdersConfidential$0.06 million (confidential)Individual transferable gear units (jig machines)Latent effort in the fishery remains high, but catch and effort in the fishery increased from 2015 to 2016. This suggests that the economic incentive to fish and NER in the fishery may have improved.
Western Deepwater Trawl FisheryMEY target not specifiedNot availableHigh non-participation by licence holdersConfidential$0.03 million (confidential)Limited entryNo fishing activity occurred in the fishery during the 2015–16 fishing season. Estimates of NER for previous years are not available, but a decline in effort and a low number of active fishing permits in recent years indicate that NER have been low.
Torres Strait Finfish FisheryNot applicable cNot availableNot applicable$1.28 million
(+16%)
Not availableNon-tradeable quotaEstimates of NER are not available. Economic performance in 2015–16 remains uncertain despite an increase in GVP, because of the lack of clarity around fishing effort levels by the TIB sector. The first export of live coral trout from the fishery in 2016–17 is a positive sign for NER.
Torres Strait Tropical Rock Lobster FisheryNot applicable cNot availableLow uncaught TAC$14.28 million
(–2%)
Not availableLimited entry, size limits, gear limits and bag limitsNER are likely to have improved in 2015–16. A decrease in effort in the fishery in 2015–16 suggests a reduction in fishing costs, and, when combined with a lower fall in GVP, indicates that NER in the fishery are likely to have increased.
Torres Strait Prawn FisheryNot applicable cNot availableHigh unused effort$8.86 million
(–7%)
$0.25 million
(3%, AFMA costs only)
Tradeable effort units (nights)NER for the fishery were negative in 2012–13 (–$2.4 million); no estimates of NER are available for 2014–15 and 2015–16, although a significant increase in GVP in 2014–15 and 2015–16 relative to 2012–13 suggests improvement in NER.
Torres Strait Bêche-de-mer and Trochus fisheriesNot applicable cNot availableHigh uncaught TACNot availableNot availableTACsEstimates of NER are not available. NER are likely to be lower in the 2016 fishing season because of a significant decrease in the catch of valuable species such as black teatfish and prickly redfish, and lower catches of most other species caught in the fishery.
Eastern Tuna and Billfish FisheryMEY target not adequately specified or appliedIncreasing trend; turned positive in 2010–11Low uncaught quota for striped marlin, swordfish, yellowfin tuna and bigeye tuna; high for albacore $48.76 million
(+38%)
$1.65 million
(3%)
ITQsNER remained positive in 2013–14 (preliminary estimate) and for 2014–15 are likely to have increased as a result of higher GVP, lower fuel prices and reduced latency. In 2015–16, NER are likely to have increased further as prices for all major species increased significantly. Implementation of ITQs and a harvest strategy for some stocks are likely to be supporting increases in NER; however, neither have been implemented long enough to determine whether there has been a positive effect.
Skipjack Tuna FisheryMEY target not specifiedNo fishingHigh non-participation by licence holdersNo fishing$0.04 million
(no fishing)
Limited entryNo Australian vessels fished in 2014 or 2015. Fishing is opportunistic, and highly dependent on availability and the domestic cannery market.
Southern Bluefin Tuna FisheryMEY target not specifiedNot available but likely to be positiveLow uncaught TAC$35.88 million
(–4%)
$0.92 million
(3%)
ITQsNER are expected to have remained positive, but deteriorating. The overfished status of the stock poses a risk to future NER. Economic status will improve as the stock is rebuilt under the management procedure.
Western Tuna and Billfish FisheryMEY target not specifiedNot availableHigh uncaught TAC (more than 95% in the 2015 and 2016 fishing seasons)Confidential$0.23 million (confidential)ITQsLatency remained high in 2016, with only a small proportion of the TACC caught, suggesting low NER.
Heard and McDonald Islands FisheryNot applicable cNot available but likely to be positiveLow uncaught TACConfidential$1.60 million (confidential)ITQsEstimates of NER are not available but are likely to be positive. Lower NER are likely for 2015–16 because there was significantly lower catch (a result of a lower TAC) and an increase in the level of uncaught TAC.
Macquarie Island Toothfish FisheryNot applicable cNot available but likely to be positiveLow uncaught TACConfidential$0.37 million (confidential)ITQsEstimates of NER are not available but are likely positive between 2013–14 and 2016–17 because the TAC for Patagonian toothfish was mostly caught.
CCAMLR Exploratory toothfish fisheriesNot applicable cNot availableLow uncaught TACConfidentialConfidentialLimited entry and TACsEstimates of NER are not available, and NER remain uncertain. Australian fishers participated in subarea 88.2 in the 2014–15 fishing season and in division 58.4.1 during the 2015–16 season.

a NER estimates and management costs are only available for the Commonwealth Trawl Sector and exclude the Scalefish Hook Sector. b NER estimates and management costs are only available for the GHTS, which includes Scalefish Hook Sector catches and gillnet scalefish catches. c These fisheries are jointly managed fisheries that are not managed under MEY objectives. Statistics are provided by financial year.
Notes: AFMA Australian Fisheries Management Authority. BMEY Biomass at maximum economic yield. CCAMLR Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. CTS Commonwealth Trawl Sector. GHTS Gillnet, Hook and Trap Sector. GVP Gross value of production. ITQ Individual transferable quota. MEY Maximum economic yield. NER Net economic returns. SESSF Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery. TAC Total allowable catch. TACC Total allowable commercial catch. TIB Traditional Inhabitant Boat. The South Tasman Rise Trawl Fishery is not shown because it has been closed since 2007.

Fisheries managed solely by the Australian Government

ABARES undertakes regular economic surveys of the most valuable fisheries managed solely by the Australian Government: the CTS, and the Gillnet, Hook and Trap Sector (GHTS) of the SESSF; and the NPF. These fisheries are managed under MEY objectives. Together, they accounted for 87 per cent of the GVP of all Australian Government–managed fisheries in 2015–16.

The tiger prawn component of the NPF is explicitly managed to a MEY target, using a bio-economic model to set effort levels that are estimated to produce MEY. The banana prawn component of the NPF is separately managed through an MEY-based catch rate trigger for season closure. NER in the NPF increased to $12 million in 2013–14, and continued to improve in 2014–15 as a result of improved prices and a strong catching season for tiger prawns (Bath & Green 2016). The bio-economic modelling of the tiger prawn component of the fishery has allowed the fishery to improve its economic performance for this component of the fishery.

In the CTS and GHTS, MEY is targeted through the application of proxies for BMEY to individual stocks. For the most valuable species targeted in these two sectors, biomass levels are generally estimated to be close to, or above, their respective BMEY targets, meaning that stock levels are not constraining profits. For the CTS, estimates of NER increased from $1.7 million in 2005–06 to $4.5 million in 2011–12. Since then, NER are estimated to have decreased substantially by 2013–14, following a 29 per cent decrease in GVP generated in the fishery in that year. In the GHTS, positive NER were maintained in the decade leading up to, and including, 2008–09. However, NER turned negative in 2009–10, declining to –$0.4 million, as spatial closures aimed at reducing marine mammal interactions and efforts to avoid (overfished) school shark affected the sector's economic performance (Skirtun & Green 2015).

In the Great Australian Bight Trawl Sector (GABTS), the development of a bio-economic model for the two key target species (deepwater flathead—Platycephalus conatus, and bight redfish—Centroberyx gerrardi) has improved the ability to target BMEY (Kompas et al. 2012). The most recent stock assessments for bight redfish and deepwater flathead suggest that fishery profitability is unlikely to be constrained by stock status.

Some fisheries that had been small in previous years expanded in 2015–16, including the Small Pelagic Fishery (SPF) and the BSCZSF. Both these fisheries underwent management changes that allowed growth in GVP. For the BSCZSF, surveys in recent years have shown substantially larger biomass levels that have allowed higher TACs and more areas to be opened to fishing under the rules of the harvest strategy. In the SPF, the use of a large factory freezer midwater trawl vessel allowed a larger catch. Changes in NER are uncertain, however, because of a lack of information about changes in the cost structures of the fishery.

Low catch-and-effort levels in the other fisheries (Coral Sea Fishery, East Coast Deepwater Trawl Sector, North West Slope Trawl Fishery, Southern Squid Jig Fishery and Western Deepwater Trawl Fishery) indicate low NER in 2015–16. For these fisheries, it is often difficult to assess economic status because of a lack of economic data.

Jointly managed fisheries

Of the fisheries jointly managed by the Australian Government, the major fisheries include the SBTF, the ETBF and the Torres Strait Tropical Rock Lobster Fishery (TSTRLF). Combined, these three fisheries generated a GVP of $98.8 million and accounted for 45 per cent of the GVP of all jointly managed fisheries in 2015–16. Individually, these fisheries generated GVPs of $35.9 million (wild-caught southern bluefin tuna as input to tuna farms), $48.8 million and $14.2 million, respectively, in 2015–16.

Estimates of NER are not available for the SBTF. However, the fishery provides fish to South Australia's southern bluefin tuna aquaculture industry (generating $127 million GVP at the farm gate in 2015–16). Although the stock's current low biomass level poses a risk to the future flow of NER from the fishery, the current international management arrangements, which are designed to allow the stock to rebuild, would be expected to improve NER in future.

Economic status in the ETBF has improved. Based on recent estimates, in 2010–11, NER were positive for the first time since 2000–01 (George & New 2013). From 2011–12 to 2012–13, NER remained positive but slightly lower as a result of higher fuel prices. In 2013–14, preliminary estimates are that NER fell further to $0.1 million; this reduction was mostly driven by higher operating costs and a relatively small increase in fishing income.

Torres Strait fisheries are managed in accordance with the Torres Strait FisheriesAct 1984. This Act details a range of management priorities, including acknowledging and protecting the traditional way of life and livelihood of Traditional Inhabitants. As a result, these fisheries are not evaluated against the MEY objective of the HSP in these reports, and achieving the fishery's economic potential needs to be considered alongside the social and cultural objectives of Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal people. The TSTRLF was the most valuable commercial fishery in Torres Strait in 2015–16, followed by the Torres Strait Prawn Fishery.

Latency in fisheries

In many fisheries, the degree of latency—that is, the proportion of TAC left uncaught, or the level of non-participation by licence holders—is high (Table 1.4). High levels of latency indicate that the economic incentive to participate actively in the fishery is lacking and that the overall economic performance of the fishery is likely to be low. In general, input controls, such as allowable effort, and output controls, such as TACs, should be set in line with the aim of achieving MEY. If fishers collectively are fishing below the TAC, they are foregoing economically profitable opportunities, the MEY target has been set too high or there are practical difficulties preventing fishers catching to the MEY target.

For some fisheries, the degree of latency can be explained in terms of the type of fishery and the industry structure. For example, for some jointly managed fisheries where Australia maintains an economic interest, latency may be high because the negotiated TAC for Australian fishers is not set according to MEY criteria. For some fisheries managed solely by the Australian Government, the fleet structure of the fishery may not be well aligned with the MEY target, and hence the TAC remains uncaught at the end of the fishing season. For example, the adoption by the SPF of a factory trawler has led to reduced latency in that fishery in the 2015–16 and 2016–17 fishing seasons.

However, for some fisheries, the reasons for persistent high latency remain unclear and warrant further investigation. For example, a number of species in the SESSF have increasingly been undercaught in terms of their TACs in recent seasons; the reasons for the undercatch require investigation so that appropriate management responses can be made.

The MEY target can be set higher than the optimum level for a number of reasons, including that:

  • estimating MEY targets requires investments in data collection and modelling that are constrained by available resources; managers therefore frequently use proxy targets that may not be optimal for a given species or multispecies stock
  • market conditions, such as fish prices or input prices for fuel and labour, may have changed, making a model-derived MEY target and/or proxy inaccurate
  • a stock may be less abundant than anticipated, or located further afield, and thus more costly to catch
  • regulatory changes in gear or spatial restrictions may mean that it is no longer economically profitable to catch to the previous MEY target.

Practical considerations sometimes make it difficult to catch to the MEY target. For example, an undercaught species may be co-caught with a targeted high-value species that has been fished to quota. Targeting the undercaught species may be too costly or impractical within a season. Similarly, a reduction in quota for a target species will likely reduce the catch of co-caught species. MEY targets designed for multispecies fisheries would help to address this cause of undercatch. In addition, fishers may not be able to obtain quota for the undercaught species because of the costs involved in obtaining quota in a market with few transactions.

1.4 Environmental status in 2016

The Fishery status reports examines the broader impact of fisheries on the environment, in response to the requirements of the Fisheries Management Act 1991 and the EPBC Act. The Australian Government aims to implement an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management as part of meeting the principles of ecologically sustainable development. This requires a holistic approach to management that considers fisheries' interactions with, and impacts on, bycatch species (including protected species), marine habitats, communities and ecosystems.

Ecological risk assessment

A key component of AFMA's ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management has been the application of an ecological risk management (ERM) framework that is designed to respond to the outcomes of the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process (Hobday et al. 2007). Fishery-specific ERM reports integrate the information from the ERAs and other management requirements, such as recovery plans and threat abatement plans, and detail AFMA's management response. Fishery-specific actions with respect to bycatch and discarding are identified in fishery-specific bycatch and discarding workplans. The ecological risk assessment and management framework has been revised, and reviews for the ETBF and SPF have commenced.

Commonwealth Policy on Fisheries Bycatch

The Commonwealth Policy on Fisheries Bycatch 2000 (bycatch policy) was reviewed in 2012. The main objectives of the policy are to reduce bycatch, to improve protection of vulnerable species and to arrive at decisions on the acceptable extent of ecological impacts (DAFF 2013a). The review of the bycatch policy found that a revised policy would be best developed within a framework of policy instruments for fisheries management that address all relevant aspects of fisheries management and its effect on the marine environment.

Cumulative impacts

The wide distribution of many protected species across the Australian Fishing Zone means that some species may interact with a number of fisheries, including fisheries in other jurisdictions and on the high seas. Although interactions in a single fishery may be low, the cumulative impact across several fisheries can be significant. Data constraints limit the assessment and understanding of cumulative impacts across fisheries and jurisdictions (Phillips et al. 2010). The current bycatch policy does not explicitly address the issue of cumulative effects on bycatch species. The bycatch policy review found that a revised policy should identify approaches to assessing and managing cumulative effects as a priority (DAFF 2013a).

Protected species interactions

During the normal course of fishing operations, fishers can interact with protected species listed under the EPBC Act. Legislation requires them to take all reasonable steps to minimise interactions and report any interactions that occur. AFMA reports interactions with protected species reported by fishers in logbooks to the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy on a quarterly basis. The species involved and the level of interactions vary between fisheries and sectors, as well as with gear, area and season. Although interactions with protected species are usually rare, they can still be a significant source of mortality for the affected populations.

Considerable progress has been made in some fisheries to implement measures to reduce interactions with protected species. Some examples are:

  • compulsory use of turtle excluder devices in the NPF
  • implementation of a threat abatement plan for the incidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during pelagic longline fishing operations in the ETBF, Western Tuna and Billfish Fishery (WTBF) and Macquarie Island Toothfish Fishery
  • use of seal excluder devices in the SPF and in the winter blue grenadier trawl fishery of the SESSF
  • gillnet fishing closures in the Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook sectors of the SESSF to avoid interactions with Australian sea lions.

Recently, there has been a focus on seabird interactions with trawl fisheries. Following sea trials in 2015 to assess the impact of two new devices designed to reduce seabird interactions, since 1 May 2017, all vessels in the CTS and GABTS fisheries must use one of the following mitigation devices: sprayers, bird bafflers or pinkies (large floats attached in front of trawl warps to scare birds away), with zero discharge of fish waste.

AFMA also introduced new dolphin mitigation strategies in the SPF and the Gillnet, Hook and Trap sector (GHAT) of the SESSF that came into force on 10 May 2017. These strategies apply to all trawling operations in the SPF and the whole gillnet sector of the GHAT, and were developed in consultation with stakeholders, as well as marine mammal experts.

Data collection

Limited availability of reliable data on interactions with protected species remains problematic in some fisheries. The rare nature of interactions with protected species creates a challenge for obtaining reliable estimates of interaction rates, particularly at lower levels of observer coverage. Reliable data are critical for determining the extent of interactions, evaluating the potential impact on populations (particularly for high-risk species) and demonstrating the effectiveness of management measures.

AFMA has continued to strengthen independent monitoring capabilities by introducing electronic monitoring (e-monitoring) programs in several fisheries and subfisheries to improve logbook reporting and for logbook verification of interactions with protected species. A preliminary comparison of catch-and-discard data for target and bycatch species, as well as wildlife interactions, recorded in logbooks before the introduction of e-monitoring and afterwards shows a marked change in most cases after the introduction of e-monitoring, suggesting that fishers are recording data in their logbooks more accurately than before (Larcombe et al. 2016).

E-monitoring became mandatory on 1 September 2014 for boats using automatic demersal longline gear, and on 1 July 2015 for gillnet boats that fish more than 50 days per year and manual demersal longline boats that fish more than 100 days per year. E-monitoring became mandatory in the ETBF and the WTBF on 1 July 2015 for pelagic longline boats that fish more than 30 days per year.

At a minimum, 10 per cent of the video footage is analysed at random, and a risk-based approach is used to audit more footage from boats that are suspected of misreporting. In the GHTS, all gillnet hauls are audited in the Australian sea lion management zones, to verify any protected species bycatch. More information on e-monitoring can be found on the AFMA website.2

1.5 Policy reviews

In May 2013, the Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (now the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources) released separate review reports on the HSP (DAFF 2013b) and the Commonwealth Policy on Fisheries Bycatch 2000 (DAFF 2013a). The reviews included public comment on discussion papers, stakeholder workshops, and technical reviews by ABARES, CSIRO and the University of Wollongong.

The review of the HSP concluded that the policy has largely been successful in improving the management of Commonwealth fisheries and has provided a strong foundation for fisheries management. The review noted that, in most respects, the policy and guidelines meet or exceed international obligations and best practice. The review's key recommendations for improving the policy include providing additional direction or guidelines on stock rebuilding strategies and discarding of commercial species; implementing the MEY objective in multispecies fisheries; and ensuring that the policy applies to all commercial species, including byproduct species.

The bycatch policy review recommended the development of a revised bycatch policy, including new policy objectives and principles, and a revised definition of bycatch. Key recommendations of the review included development of a tiered approach to monitoring, assessing and managing bycatch; development of guidelines to underpin implementation of the revised policy (similar to those for the HSP); use of trigger points and decision rules, where appropriate; and development of a performance monitoring and reporting framework to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the bycatch policy.

The reports on the HSP and bycatch policy reviews do not provide any policy direction themselves, but are intended to inform the future revision and update of the policy framework for Commonwealth fisheries. These reviews complement the high-level review of Commonwealth fisheries management undertaken by Mr David Borthwick, AO, PSM, in 2012. Both policies are now being revised; the current policy settings will continue to apply until this process is complete and new policies are adopted.

1.6 References

Bath, A & Green, R 2016, Economic indicators report for Commonwealth fisheries: financial and economic performance of the Northern Prawn Fishery 2016, ABARES, Canberra.

DAFF 2007, Commonwealth Fisheries Harvest Strategy: policy and guidelines, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra.

—— 2013a, Report on the review of the Commonwealth Policy on Fisheries Bycatch, DAFF, Canberra.

—— 2013b, Report on the review of the Commonwealth Fisheries Harvest Strategy: policy and guidelines, DAFF, Canberra.

George, D & New, R 2013, Australian fisheries surveys report 2012: financial and economic performance of the Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery, the Commonwealth Trawl Sector and the Gillnet, Hook and Trap Sector, ABARES, Canberra.

Hobday, A, Smith, A, Webb, H, Daley, R, Wayte, S, Bulman, C, Dowdney, J, Williams, A, Sporcic, M, Dambacher, J, Fuller, M & Walker, T 2007, Ecological risk assessment for effects of fishing: methodology, report R04/1072 for the Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Canberra.

Kompas, T, Che, N, Chu, L & Klaer, N 2012, Transition to MEY goals for the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery, report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Australian Centre for Biosecurity and Environmental Economics, Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University, Canberra.

Larcombe, JL, Noriega, R & Stobutzki, I 2015, Reducing uncertainty in fisheries stock status, ABARES research report, Canberra.

——, Noriega, R & Timmiss, T 2016, ‘Catch reporting under e-monitoring in the Australian Pacific longline fishery', paper presented at the second session of the WCPFC E-reporting and E-monitoring intersessional working group, 1–2 August 2016, WCPFC-2016-ERandEMWG2-DP01, Bali, Indonesia.

Phillips, K, Giannini, F, Lawrence, E & Bensley, N 2010, Cumulative assessment of the catch of non-target species in Commonwealth fisheries: a scoping study, Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.

Skirtun, M & Green, R 2015, Australian fisheries economic indicators report 2015: financial and economic performance of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery, ABARES, Canberra.

Footnotes

1GVP figures are subject to revision and consequently may differ in past and future publications.

2www.afma.gov.au/monitoring-enforcement/electronic-monitoring-program/

Appendix A

Comparison of stock status classifications between the Fishery status reports (for Commonwealth fisheries) and the Status of Australian fish stocks reports (for all states and territories with wild-capture fisheries)

Fishery status reports Status of Australian fish stocks reports
BiomassFishing mortality Stock status
Not overfished+Not subject to overfishing=Sustainable
Overfished+Not subject to overfishing=↑ Transitional–recovering a
Not overfished+Subject to overfishing=↓ Transitional–depleting
Overfished+Subject to overfishing=Overfished b
Uncertain if overfishedORUncertain if subject to overfishing=Undefined

a For a stock to be considered transitional–recovering in the national reports, there must also be evidence that the biomass is recovering (that is, increasing). b If the Fishery status reports classify a stock as ‘overfished' and ‘not subject to overfishing' but there is no evidence that biomass is recovering, it would be considered as ‘overfished' in the national reports rather than ‘transitional–recovering'.

Note: Status of Australian fish stocks reports 2016 includes an additional classification of ‘environmentally limited'. This is described as when spawning stock biomass has been reduced to the point where average recruitment levels are significantly reduced, primarily as a result of substantial environmental changes and impacts, or disease outbreaks, and fisheries management has responded appropriately to the environmental change in productivity. There is currently no equivalent classification in the Fishery status reports.

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Last reviewed:
13 Feb 2018