About my region is a series of individual profiles of the agricultural, forestry and fisheries industries in your region. This regional profile presents an overview of the agriculture, fisheries, and forestry sectors in South Australia and the recent financial performance of the South Australian broadacre, dairy, and vegetable industries.
South Australia covers a total area of around 983,482 square kilometres and is home to approximately 1,713,100 people (ABS 2017). Agricultural land in South Australia occupies 522,343 square kilometres, or about 53 per cent of the state. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) occupy 417,650 square kilometres, or 42.5 per cent of the state. The most common land use by area is grazing native vegetation, which occupies 410,100 square kilometres or 42 per cent of the state.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the November 2017 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 825,400 people were employed in South Australia.
Health care and social assistance was the largest employment sector with 128,200 people, followed by retail trade with 91,300 people, and manufacturing with 73,500 people. Other important employment sectors in the state were construction; education and training; and public administration and safety. The agriculture, forestry and fishing sector employed 34,900 people, representing around 4 per cent of the state's workforce.
Value of agricultural production
In 2015–16, the gross value of agricultural production in South Australia was $6.2 billion, which was 11 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in Australia ($56 billion).
The most important commodities in South Australia based on the gross value of agricultural production were wheat ($927 million), followed by cattle and calves ($683 million) and fruit and nuts (excluding grapes) ($550 million). These commodities together contributed 35 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the state.
Number and type of farms
ABS data indicate that in 2015–16 there were 9,371 farms in South Australia with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $40,000 or more. The state contains 11 per cent of all farm businesses in Australia.
Number of farms, by industry classification, South Australia, 2015–16
|Industry classification||South Australia region||Australia|
|Number of farms||% of Region||Number of farms||Contribution of SA to Australian total %|
|Other Grain Growing ||1,986 ||21.2 ||10,496 ||18.9 |
|Sheep Farming (Specialised) ||1,666 ||17.8 ||9,632 ||17.3 |
|Grape Growing ||1,361 ||14.5 ||3,097 ||44.0 |
|Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming ||1,330 ||14.2 ||8,507 ||15.6 |
|Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised) ||779 ||8.3 ||22,608 ||3.4 |
|Sheep-Beef Cattle Farming ||588 ||6.3 ||5,069 ||11.6 |
|Dairy Cattle Farming ||280 ||3.0 ||6,609 ||4.2 |
|Vegetable Growing (Outdoors) ||271 ||2.9 ||2,742 ||9.9 |
|Citrus Fruit Growing ||147 ||1.6 ||813 ||18.0 |
|Vegetable Growing (Under Cover) ||140 ||1.5 ||322 ||43.5 |
|Other Crop Growing
nec||131 ||1.4 ||1,268 ||10.3 |
|Other ||692 ||7.4 ||13,352 ||5.2 |
Total agriculture ||
Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $40,000 or more. Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown.
nec Not elsewhere classified.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2017
Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Other grain growing farms (1,986) were the most common, accounting for about 21 per cent of all farms in South Australia.
Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 28 per cent of farms in South Australia had an EVAO between $50,000 and $150,000. These farms accounted for only 4 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2015–16. In comparison, 16 per cent of farms in the state had an EVAO of more than $1 million and accounted for an estimated 56 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in South Australia in 2015–16.
Farm financial performance
Estimates of financial performance are available for all broadacre, beef, sheep, grains, dairy and vegetable farms in
In 2014–15 the gross value of South Australia's fisheries production was around $468 million, an increase of 19 per cent ($76 million) from 2013–14. South Australia contributed 17 per cent of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2014–15. In value terms, the wild–catch sector accounted for 51 per cent ($240 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 49 per cent ($227 million).
South Australia's wild–catch fisheries sector is dominated by four main products—Southern rock lobster, prawns, abalone and Australian sardines—which account for 52 per cent, 15 per cent, 11 per cent and 9 per cent respectively of the total value of wild-caught production in 2014–15. Over the last decade the real value of South Australia's wild-caught fisheries products has increased by 1 per cent to $240 million (2014–15). The product for which the real value of production increased most over the past decade are wild-caught rock lobster, increasing by $38 million. A large proportion of abalone is exported, mostly to Hong Kong, China and Japan. Exchange rate movements have a significant effect on the value of abalone exports and, in turn, production. Prawns are mostly sold in the domestic market, where competition from imports has placed significant downward pressure on prices in recent years.
Most Australian sardine production is used as a high quality feed in tuna ranching operations located off Port Lincoln in South Australia. A small portion also goes toward human consumption, the recreational fishing bait market and premium brands of pet food.
In 2014–15 the value of South Australia's aquaculture production is estimated to have increased by 25 per cent from $181 million in 2013–14 to $227 million in 2014–15. Southern bluefin tuna is the single most valuable species in the region and South Australia's aquaculture industry, and is ranched by the Commonwealth Southern Bluefin Tuna fishery for fattening in sea cages at Port Lincoln. Southern bluefin tuna accounted for 57 per cent (131 million) of the value of South Australian aquaculture production, followed by oysters (12 per cent; $28 million) and abalone (5 per cent; $11 million).
Commonwealth fisheries active in waters off South Australia include the Commonwealth Trawl Sector (main source of domestic fresh fish for Sydney and Melbourne markets) the Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook Sectors (supplies gummy shark or flake to Melbourne) of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery and the Great Australian Bight sector of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery harvesting mainly redfish and flathead. The Small Pelagic Fishery (mostly fishmeal for aquaculture and agriculture) also operates in the waters off South Australia.
In 2014–15, South Australia's fisheries product exports were valued at $244 million. The main export products include tuna, Southern rock lobster and abalone. Japan and Vietnam are the major destinations for South Australian fisheries exports, accounting for 52 per cent and 28 per cent of the total value of exports in 2014–15, respectively. Other major export destinations include Hong Kong (12 per cent) and Singapore (2 per cent).
Recreational fishing is popular in South Australia with an estimated 236,000 South Australians (5 years and over) participating in the activity in the 12 months prior to October 2007 (PIRSA 2010). In its survey of recreational fishers in South Australia PIRSA (2010) found that most fishing effort is directed to the Gulf St. Vincent and Kangaroo Island waters (42 per cent), followed by Spencer Gulf (27 per cent), West Coast (11 per cent) and the South East waters (7 per cent). Most (87 per cent) fishing effort occurred in marine waters, including estuaries, and inshore and offshore waters. The remaining 13 per cent of effort was in freshwater activity, with the majority of this effort occurring in the River Murray. The key species caught by recreational fishers include King George whiting, snapper, southern garfish, southern calamari, blue swimmer crab, southern rock lobster, mulloway, blacklip and greenlip abalone, pipi, golden perch and murray cod.
In 2015–16, the total plantation area in South Australia was 178,800 hectares, comprised of 51,400 hectares of hardwood plantations, 127,200 hectares of softwood plantations and 200 hectares of other plantations. The main hardwood species planted is blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) and the main softwood species planted is radiata pine (Pinus radiata).
In 2011, there were 4.4 million hectares of native forests in South Australia, comprised mainly of Eucalypt mallee woodland (approximately 3.5 million hectares), Eucalypt medium open (205,300 hectares) and Eucalypt medium woodland (193,000 hectares) forest types. There were 1.5 million hectares of native forests in nature conservation reserves, 1.5 million hectares were privately owned, and 1.3 million hectares were leasehold forests.
In 2015–16, the volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested in South Australia was 1.2 million cubic metres valued at $94 million. The volume of softwood harvested was 3 million cubic metres valued at $227 million. No native hardwood forestry harvesting is undertaken in South Australia.
Total sales and service income in the South Australian forest and wood product industry was estimated at $2 billion in 2015–16. The income generated from the sale of wood products was 978 million and the income generated from the sale of paper and paper products was $978 million.
In 2016, South Australia's forestry sector employed 5,518 workers (0.7 per cent of the total employed workforce in South Australia) compared with 6,499 (0.9 per cent) in 2011. The number of people employed includes the following categories: forestry, logging, support services, timber wholesaling; and wood, pulp, paper and converted paper product manufacturing.
Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2016, cat. no. 3235.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 19 September 2017.
South Australian recreational fishing guide 2009, Department of Primary Industries and Resources South Australia, Adelaide.