About my region is a series of individual profiles of the agricultural, forestry and fisheries industries in your region. This regional profile presents an overview of the agriculture, fisheries and forestry sectors in the Mackay region and the recent Queensland financial performance of the broadacre, beef, grains, dairy, vegetable, and sugarcane industries.
The Mackay region of Queensland is located in the east of the state and includes the Whitsunday Islands. The region comprises the three local government areas of Isaac, Mackay, and Whitsunday, and the major regional centre of Mackay. The region covers a total area of around 90,125 square kilometres, or 5.21 per cent of Queensland's total area, and is home to approximately 173,900 people (ABS 2017).
Agricultural land in the Mackay region occupies 79,861 square kilometres, or 89 per cent of the region. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) occupy 8,070 square kilometres, or 9 per cent of the region. The most common land use by area is grazing native vegetation, which occupies 42,464 square kilometres or 47 per cent of the Mackay region.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the August 2017 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 104,700 people were employed in the Mackay region. The region accounts for 4 per cent of total employment in Queensland and 12 per cent of all people employed in the Queensland agriculture, forestry and fishing sector.
Mining was the largest employment sector with 14,400 people, followed by retail trade with 11,100 people, and health care and social assistance with 10,600 people. Other important employment sectors in the region were construction, accommodation and food services, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry and fishing sector employed 6,500 people, representing 6 per cent of the region's workforce.
Value of agricultural production
In 2015–16, the gross value of agricultural production in the Mackay region was $1.1 billion, which was 8 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in Queensland ($13.2 billion).
The Mackay region has a diverse agricultural sector. The most important commodities in the Mackay region based on the gross value of agricultural production were cattle and calves ($656 million), followed by sugarcane ($241 million) and tomatoes ($61 million). These commodities together contributed 86 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the region. In 2015–16 the Mackay region accounted for 53 per cent ($30 million) of the state's capsicum production.
Number and type of farms
ABS data indicate that in 2014–15 there were 2,075 farms in the Mackay region with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $5,000 or more. The region contains 9 per cent of all farm businesses in Queensland.
Number of farms, by industry classification, Mackay region, 2014–15
|Industry classification||Mackay region||Queensland|
|Number of farms||% of Region||Number of farms||Contribution of region to state total %|
Sugar Cane Growing
Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised)
Vegetable Growing (Outdoors)
Other Grain Growing
Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming
Other Fruit and Tree Nut Growing
Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $5,000 or more.
Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown.
nec Not elsewhere classified
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016
Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Sugarcane farms (1,007 farms) were the most common, accounting for 49 per cent of all farms in the Mackay region, and 34 per cent of all sugarcane farms in Queensland.
Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 26 per cent of farms in the Mackay region region had an EVAO of less than $50,000. These farms accounted for only 1 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2014–15. In comparison, 23 per cent of farms in the region had an EVAO of more than $500,000 and accounted for an estimated 71 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in the Mackay region in 2014–15.
Farm financial performance
Estimates of financial performance are available for all broadacre, beef, sheep, grains, diary, vegetable, and sugarcane farms in
Mackay is a key port for commercial and recreational fishing. The East Coast Trawl Fishery is the largest of Queensland's commercial fisheries operating in the region targeting mostly prawns, but also harvesting bugs, squid, and scallops. Other commercial species harvested by Queensland fisheries in the region include shark, crab, mackerel, mullet and barramundi.
Recreational fishing is popular amongst Mackay region residents—30 per cent of the population fish at least once each year, significantly higher than the state average of 17 per cent (QDAFF 2015). They fish in local coastal waters and adjacent reefs within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park for reef species such as cod, sweetlips, stripey snapper, red emperor and barred javelin. In the central coast catchment there is recreational fishing in estuaries and freshwater reaches of rivers for mud crab, bream, whiting and barramundi. Most of the fishing effort is reported by boat fishers in marine waters. This region is a popular destination for fishers travelling from other regions of Queensland and elsewhere in Australia. In 2010–11, the most recent year for which data are available, the Mackay area contributed $8 million of Queensland's total value of aquaculture production ($86.3 million), accounting for 9 per cent of the total value of production (Wingfield 2012). The Mackay area produced 501 tonnes of aquaculture production accounting for 7 per cent of the volume of Queensland aquaculture production, utilising 178 hectares of ponds. The aquaculture industry in the area employed approximately 41 persons in 2010–11. Aquaculture species produced in the Mackay area include prawns and barramundi.
In 2014–15 the total gross value of Queensland's fisheries production was $291.1 million, an increase of 4 per cent ($10.8 million) from 2013-14. Queensland contributed 11 per cent of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2014–15. In value terms, the wild-catch sector accounted for 61 per cent ($177.1 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 39 per cent ($114.1 million).
Queensland's wild-catch fisheries sector provides a range of fisheries products. The highest contribution being from prawns, which account for 35 per cent of the total value of wild-catch fisheries production with a value of $62.8 million, followed by crabs (17 per cent; $29.5 million) and coral trout (14 per cent; $24.6 million). Over the last decade the real value of Queensland's wild-caught fisheries products has reduced by 32 per cent. Prawns and shark, showed the largest decline in the value of production over the past decade, reducing by 41 per cent and 86 per cent respectively. Competition from imported prawns in the domestic market has also placed significant downward pressure on prices in recent years.
The value of Queensland's aquaculture production has increased by 28 per cent in 2014–15 to $114.1 million. Prawn and barramundi farming account for the largest share of production by value, with prawns accounting for 71 per cent, and $81.2 million of production, followed by barramundi (24 per cent; $27.5 million).
Commonwealth fisheries active in the waters off the east coast of Queensland include the Commonwealth Eastern Tuna and Billfish fishery (mainly supplying export markets with tuna) and the Coral Sea Fishery. The final proposed Commonwealth Coral Sea Marine Reserves network released on 14 June 2012 is estimated to displace $4.0 million of gross value of production from these fisheries when the zoning comes into effect.
In 2014–15, Queensland's fisheries product exports were valued at $160 million. The main export products include live and fresh, chilled or frozen fish, prawns and rocklobster. Hong Kong, Japan and the United States are the major destinations for Queensland fisheries exports, accounting for 48 per cent, 13 per cent and 9 per cent of the total value of exports in 2013–14, respectively. Other major export destinations include Vietnam (9 per cent), Malaysia (3 per cent) and Taiwan (3 per cent).
Recreational fishing is popular in Queensland. The results of the 2013–14 state wide and regional recreational fishing survey report that recreational fishing continues to be a popular activity; however the participation rate has dropped from 17 per cent in 2010 to 15 per cent in 2013. In the 12 months prior to November 2013 approximately 700,000 Queenslanders went recreational fishing (QDAFF 2015). Total expenditure in the sector is estimated to be between $350 million and $420 million in 2008–09 (DEEDI 2009). The tropical waters of Queensland are also a key area for tourism, attracting anglers from around the world and Australia. Popular target species include crabs, prawns and a range of finfish species including cods and groupers, coral trout, redthroat emperor, rosy snapper, and mackerel. For freshwater activity some key species caught include barramundi, eels, silver perch, and yabby and blueclaw crayfish.
In 2010–11, the most recent year for which regional data are available, the total plantation area in the Mackay Region was approximately 5,900 hectares. The main softwood species planted are Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) and hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii).
In 2011, there were approximately 3.5 million hectares of native forests in the Mackay region, comprised mainly of Eucalypt medium woodland (2.1 million hectares), Eucalypt medium open (532,400 hectares) and Acacia (340,400 hectares) forest types. Approximately 2.1 million hectares of the native forests are leasehold forests, 243,100 hectares are in nature conservation reserves and 235,000 hectares are multiple-use public forest available for timber production. Major timber processing industries in the Mackay region are located at Proserpine.
In 2013–14, the total plantation area in Queensland was approximately 233,500 hectares, comprised of approximately 41,600 hectares of hardwood plantations, 189,400 hectares of softwood plantations and 2,500 hectares of other plantations. The main hardwood species planted are Dunn's white gum (Eucalyptus dunnii), lemon–scented gum (Corymbia citriodora), shining gum (Eucalyptus nitens) and teak (Tectona grandis). The main softwood species planted are Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea), hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii), slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and pine hybrids.
In 2014–15, the volume of native hardwood logs harvested was 259,000 cubic metres valued at $38 million. The volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested was 41,000 cubic metres valued at $2 million. The volume of softwood harvested, including native cypress pines, was 1.8 million cubic metres valued at $141 million.
Queensland's forest and wood product industry generated approximately $3 billion of sales and service income in 2013–14. The income was generated from the sale of wood products, such as structural wood and woodchips, estimated at approximately $2 billion. The remaining $1 billion was generated from the sale of paper and paper products.
In 2011, Queensland's forestry sector employed 12,845 workers (0.6 per cent of the total employed workforce) compared with 16,411 (0.9 per cent) in 2006. The number of people employed includes forestry support services and timber wholesaling.
Areas of native forest, by tenure, Mackay region
ABARES Australia's State of the Forests Report 2013
ABS 2017, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2016, cat. no. 3235.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 19 September 2017.
Prospects for Queensland's primary industries 2009–10, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Brisbane, Queensland.
Statewide recreational Fishing Surveys, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane, Queensland.
Wingfield, M 2012,
Ross Lobegeiger report to farmers: Aquaculture Production Survey Queensland 2010–11 (pdf 1.63mb), Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Brisbane, Queensland, October.